CHAPTER 10 _____________ SYSTEM TIMING System timing is controlled by two interrupts: 1. The NMI interrupt handles the real-time clock and auto-switch off delay. 2. The KEYBOARD INTERRUPT provides a frame-counter and handles keyboard delays and display timing etc. _______________ 10.1 REAL TIME CLOCK The clock time is stored in binary in 6 fields from $20C5 to $20CA: VARIABLE ADDRESS DESCRIPTION RANGE ======== ======= =========== ===== TMB_YEAR $20C5 YEAR 0 - 99 TMB_MONS $20C6 MONTH 0 - 11 TMB_DAYS $20C7 DATE OF MONTH 0 - 31 TMB_HOUR $20C8 HOUR 0 - 23 TMB_MINS $20C9 MINUTES 0 - 59 TMB_SECS $20CA SECONDS 0 - 59 Note that: 1. A month of 0 represents JANUARY and a date of 0 represents the 1st day of the month. 2. On a cold start only, the clock is initialised to 1 JAN 1987 00:00:00 3. The real-time clock should not be read directly from these variables because it may be being updated by an NMI. Instead system service TM$TGET should be used to get a valid time. Similarly these variables should not be written to without checking for an NMI. ________________________ 10.1.1 KEEPING TIME WITH NMI ON An NMI interrupt is generated from the semi-custom chip every second to provide an accurate real-time clock. When the machine is on, the NMI interrupt updates the time by 1 second, see TM$UPDT. _________________________ 10.1.2 KEEPING TIME WITH NMI OFF When NMIs are switched off the processor, (e.g. when the machine is switched off) an internal counter in the semi-custom chip is connected to the NMI line so that NMIs can still be counted, enabling the time to be updated when restoring NMIs to the processor. The counter has 11 bits, so the maximum time it can store is 2048 secs. When the counter reaches this value, the ACOUT bit of PORT 5 goes high and the machine switches on. Hence the machine can be forced to switch on automatically at any time up to 34mins 8secs after switching off, be pre-counting the counter. This is done when an alarm is due. Whenever the machine switches on it updates the real-time clock by the amount in the counter (less any pre-counting). If ACOUT is high, and no alarm was due, the machine switches back off immediately after updating the clock. This can be seen as the screen flashes on for an instant, every 34 mins and 8 secs while the machine is off. To disable NMIs and keep the time, system services BT$NOF and BT$NON should be used, see sections 5.7.3 and 5.7.4. ________________________ 10.1.3 AUTO-SWITCH-OFF TIME OUT The following three variables control the auto-switch-off: VARIABLE ADDRESS DESCRIPTION ======== ======= =========== TMB_SWOF $007C AUTO-SWITCH-OFF FLAG TMW_TOUT $007D,$007E TIME LEFT BEFORE SWITCH OFF TMW_TCNT $20CD,$20CE DEFAULT NUMBER OF SECONDS TO TIME-OUT The time before the machine switches off (in secs) is stored in TMW_TCNT and is set to $012C on cold start (5 mins). The contents of TMW_TCNT are copied into TMW_TOUT whenever a key is pressed or KB$GETK is called and TMW_TOUT is decremented until zero by the NMI routine every second. If TMW_TOUT is found to be zero in KB$TEST, the machine will switch off. The contents of TMW_TCNT can be changed at any time to alter the auto-switch-off time, up to a maximum of 65535 seconds (18 hours, 12 mins and 15 secs). If it is set to less than 15, the machine will still stay on for 15 secs. To disable the auto-switch-off completely, TMB_SWOF should be set to zero. This will inhibit the NMI from decrementing TMW_TOUT and prevent KB$TEST testing it. _________________________ 10.2 KEYBOARD INTERRUPT TIMERS The timer 1 compare interrupt is used to scan the keyboard to allow keyboard buffering and to provide a timing service. The time between interrupts is controlled by the variable KBW_TDEL which is initialised on cold start to be $B3DD. This value makes the KI interrupt occur exactly every 50 milliseconds and is used extensively by the operating system for timing purposes. ________ 10.2.1 TMW_FRAM TMW_FRAM is incremented by 1 on each keyboard interrupt. When $ffff is reached, it wraps back to $0000. It can be read at any time and used for accurate timing. ________ 10.2.2 DPW_REDY DPW_REDY is decremented by 1 on each keyboard interrupt until zero is reached. It can be used to provide delays (e.g. TM$WAIT stores D in DPW_REDY and waits for it to reach zero - see below). _______________ 10.3 SYSTEM SERVICES This section describes the operating system calls available for system timing. Note that TM$DAYV and TM$UPDT work from any buffer pointed to by X containing a 6 byte time representation exactly like the real-time clock (TMB_YEAR...). These routine should not operate on the real-time clock itself if an NMI is imminent, so NMIs must be checked for or TM$TGET should be used to copy the time to another buffer. 10.3.1 TM$DAYV VECTOR NUMBER: 105 INPUT PARAMETERS: X register - Address of time buffer. OUTPUT VALUES: B register - numeric value of day. X register - address of 3 byte day name. DESCRIPTION Calculates the day of the week for a given date between 1 JAN 1900 and 31 DEC 1999. X must point to the time buffer containing the particular date in the standard format. The numeric value of the day (0 to 6) is returned in the B register (0 represents MONDAY, 1 TUESDAY, etc) and X will point to the corresponding 3 byte day name in ascii (MON,TUE,WED,THU,FRI,SAT or SUN). EXAMPLE: The following routine will calculate and print the day for 2 JAN 1963: LDX #BUFFER ;POINT TO TIME BUFFER LDD #$3F00 ;YEAR 1963, MONTH JANUARY STD 0,X LDA A,#$01 ;DATE 2ND STA A,2,X OS TM$DAYV ;CALCULATE DAY LDA A, 3 PSH A ;DAY NAME LENGTH PSHX ;ADDRESS OF DAY STRING OS UT$DISP .BYTE D_FF ;CLEAR DISPLAY .ASCIZ /%b/ ;PRINT DAY ERRORS: None. 10.3.2 TM$TGET VECTOR NUMBER: 106 INPUT PARAMETERS: X register - Address of 6 byte buffer to store time. OUTPUT VALUES: None. REGISTERS PRESERVED: X DESCRIPTION Get a copy of the real-time clock into a buffer at x. It is not possible to read the clock directly in case it is being updated by an NMI. EXAMPLE: LDX #BUFFER ;X POINTS TO A 6 BYTE BUFFER OS TM$TGET ;COPY TIME INTO BUFFER AT X ERRORS: None. 10.3.3 TM$UPDT VECTOR NUMBER: 107 INPUT PARAMETERS: A register - Number of minutes to update. B register - Number of seconds to update. X register - Address of 6 byte buffer containing time. OUTPUT VALUES: None. DESCRIPTION Updates the time pointed to by X by A minutes and B seconds. A and B must be in the range 0 - 59. X must point to the year field of the 6 byte time buffer in standard format. EXAMPLE: LDX #BUFFER ;POINT TO 6 BYTE BUFFER OS TM$TGET ;GET REALTIME. PRESERVES X LDD #$003B ;UPDATE BY 0 MINS 59 SECS. OS TM$UPDT ;ADD 59 SECS TO TIME IN BUFFER ERRORS: None. 10.3.4 TM$WAIT VECTOR NUMBER: 108 INPUT PARAMETERS: D register - Time to pause in ticks. OUTPUT VALUES: None. DESCRIPTION Waits for D ticks (1 tick is the interval between keyboard interrupts, controlled by KBW_TDEL and set to 50ms by default). If interrupts are disabled (I mask set) then this routine waits for D 50ms. EXAMPLE: LDD #20 ;20 x 50ms OS TM$WAIT ;PAUSE FOR 1 SEC ERRORS: None.