My Direct II
How to use the Direct II
Direct II Video
Articles and Advertisements
The company Moesch & Huber was founded by Carl Moesch and Hans Huber in Zürich in 1921 or earlier. They constructed the Demos calculator in about 1922, which had a toothed segment mechanism and was a cheaper alternative to pinwheel calculators. It was not very successful so they switched to producing the Direct calculator. This was made from about 1926, and later the similar but slightly improved version appeared, the Direct II. There was also a variant called the Direct L which was a listing machine, and the Direct EL which was an electrically driven version of the Direct L listing adding machine. All these variants seem to have been made in two different sizes, one that is 2 columns/digits wider than the other.
The company name shown on the Direct calculators is Theo Muggli AG, also based in Zürich. This company sold office equipment, mainly typewriters and calculators. It is unclear to me how much Theo Muggli himself was involved in the design and manufacturing of the Direct machines, but his company was the sole distributor of them. Theo Muggli died in 1933, but the company that was named after him continued after his death using the same name until it was finally dissolved in 1995.
The Direct and earlier versions of the Direct II had a black case with a green keyboard plate, and black and white keys. Later the colour of the Direct II was changed to dark brown, with a light brown keyboard and brown and white keys. The differences between the Direct and the Direct II are minor. The Direct had two buttons for selection of + and × mode, whereas the Direct II has a single switch. Also, the two buttons marked S'tot and Corr were combined into a single S/C button.
My Direct II is one of the later versions, so its casing is brown. It has 10 columns of keys, and a 10-digit register. Its serial number is 26509. It is not exactly known when these machines were produced, but it seems they were being made and sold until the 1950s.
The Direct II has two registers. The display register generally shows the input, but there is also an internal register that keeps track of the result of the calculation, i.e. it holds the running total of all the numbers that were added or subtracted.
The controls are as follows:
Here is a video where I demonstrate my Direct II.
Here are a few articles about Theo Muggli and the Direct that I found in online archives.
Articles about Theo Muggli
(The Royal Standard, Royal Typewriter Company Inc., 1922-1924)
(Organisations-Lexikon, Walter le Coutre and Walter Thoms, 1930)
(Moderne Buero-Maschinen, 1931)
(Die Tat, 1941-04-24)
Here a few advertisements for the Direct, and several ads by Theo Muggli though they are mostly for typewriters.
Here are all the patents by Hans Huber and Carl Moesch that I was able to find. Only one seems to be for the Direct adding machine.
|Patent||Filing date||Priority date||Name||Description|
|GB 1913/16,146||12-07-1913||11-06-1914||Hans Huber||Carry mechanism|
|CH 101,848||05-09-1922||16-10-1923||Hans Huber||Demos calculator|
See also DE 405,510 B.
|CH 122,102||25-03-1925||01-09-1927||Hans Huber||Direct display register|
See also AT 108,510 B, DE 450,829 C.
|FR 613,220||22-03-1926||12-11-1926||Hans Huber||Carry mechanism, unknown listing machine|
|CH 234,614||10-09-1942||15-10-1944||Carl Moesch||Multiplication counter for a Comptometer type adding machine.|
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