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XBASE 3.0 Manual


Contents

XBASE Version 3.0 Supplementary notes Corrections and Alterations 1. Util Forms Make 2. Error messages 3. Memory usage New Features Quick Reference Charts MBASE Quick Reference XBASE Quick Reference UTIL Quick Reference QDIARY Quick Reference MINIKEY Quick Reference XBASE Version 2.0 Tutorial Installing XBASE Setting up prompts for the address file Entering data Finding, editing and deleting data Printing Data Sorting Data XBASE Version 2.0 Enhancements and New Features INTRODUCTION INSTALLATION PROCEDURES Data Resident Versions Memory Resident Versions Installation Parameters Getting the Best of Both Worlds MINIKEY QDIARY MBASE Installation Parameters Changes to FIND The JUMP option User defined prompts - DATA The FORMS option - UTIL Creating a Prompt file Viewing a Prompt file Copying Prompt files XBASE Enhanced KILL and ALT Changes to STAT and file statistics. Formatting a RAM Pack - WIPE Printing from within FIND Printing from within VIEW (or RANK) FORMATTING OUTPUT - PICK SORTING FILES - RANK Sorting by Surname Advanced sorting methods - Multiple and split keys Technical notes PRINT OPTIONS Initialization sequence Closing Printer Sequences Page Formatting Parameters Printer Errors Field Delimiters and Tabs Advanced Formatting Techniques Working out column widths Hints and Tips for Printing A Worked Example Epson Printer Escape sequences SAVING THE CURRENT XBASE CONFIGURATION LOADING XBASE CONFIGURATION FILES - INST and CAT MEMORY REQUIREMENTS EXTENSION TO COPYRIGHT NOTICE

XBASE 1.1 INSTRUCTION MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS INSTALLATION INTRODUCTION INSTALLATION PROCEDURE MEMORY ORGANIZATION (32K XP) FIXING THE MENU - CHANGING CONFIGURATION OPTIONS REMOVING MEMORY RESIDENT SOFTWARE ERROR MESSAGES THE REFUND PROGRAM MBASE INTRODUCTION A word about drives and files The ON/CLEAR key Datapacks / power supply Mixed case edit mode MANAGING YOUR FILES Creating a new database file Listing file names Deleting files MORE ABOUT DRIVES AND FILES New files Selecting a file for processing (via USE option) Selecting a file for processing (via MODE key) Selecting MAIN Interaction with PACK, KILL and the top level menu Error conditions SAVING DATA TO A FILE The SAVE option Advanced features The data entry option FINDING, ERASING AND EDITING DATA Searching for data Searching through more than one file Deleting records Editing records Treatment of edited records XBASE INTRODUCTION ENHANCED FIND Searching for data - multiple test values Moving and copying data Selecting a destination file - the ALT option RENAMING FILES ENHANCED PACK - DATAPACK STATISTICS BATCH PROCESSING - THE VIEW OPTION File statistics Checking your selection criteria Making changes to the source file / selection criteria Counting records Moving and copying records Deleting records TRADITIONAL DATABASE vs PSION FLOATING FORMAT QDIARY INTRODUCTION Installation options - granularity The keyboard COMMANDS Time adjustment Date adjustment Full date (equivalent to GOTO) Locate (equivalent to LIST) Search (equivalent to FIND) Jump and mark Undo key Entering and amending diary entries MOVING, COPYING AND DELETING DIARY ENTRIES MINIKEY INTRODUCTION The HOT key and the MODE key PUNCTUATION MARKS CASE INVERSION MACRO RECORDINGS AND FUNCTION KEYS Macro recording Assigning a macro to a function key Limitations, errors and useful hints Turning off the key click Some more examples THE POUND SIGN FOREIGN CHARACTERS THE BREAK CHARACTER ERRORS


XBASE Version 3.0
Supplementary notes
© Cubsoft 1988/89/90

Corrections and Alterations

1. Util Forms Make

The captions which indicate the keyboard status during data entry have been changed and are to be interpreted as follows :

TXTdefault is alphabetic characters, use SHIFT for numerics
NUMdefault is numerics, use SHIFT for alphabetic characters
CAPalphabetic characters will appear in upper case
LOWalphabetic characters will appear in lower case

2. Error messages

The INVALID CALL message has been changed to MISSING PROC (a space saving measure), this does not mean that the datapack is faulty.

3. Memory usage

XBASE now requires 5.75K of memory (a 5% increase). There have also been slight increases in the memory required by MBASE, MINIKEY and QDIARY.

New Features

XBASE now includes two new options IMPT and EXPT on the VIEW menu which may be used to convert (on the Organiser) files which have been imported from or are about to be exported to Lotus, DBASE or other commercial spreadsheet and database packages on a pc which recognise ASCII or CSV (comma separated variable) format files.

Both options work in a similar way to COPY reading data from the current file (set with USE or VIEW), modifying it and then writing out the data in an appropriate format to the destination file (as set by ALT) .

Any selection criteria used with VIEW will act as a filter on the records to be processed. You may use a pick string when exporting data to convert selected fields, pick strings are ignored during import (since CSV files appear as a single line records on the organiser).

If you set the ALT file to match the current file a move will be performed rather than a copy, existing records will be replaced by records in the new format the original records being deleted in the process.

EXPT works by surrounding each field in quotes and replacing the TAB chars which separate fields on the organiser by commas. Since the overall record length is increased by two characters per field a small amount or data may be lost when exporting large records with many fields.

IMPT strips off quotes which surround fields and replace comma separators by TAB chars. Some software packages surround only text fields by quotes and leave numeric data as is, IMPT correctly recognises this format.


Quick Reference Charts

MBASE Quick Reference ===================== ------------------------------- ----------------------------------- | MBASE menu | | MOD options | | Find Save Use Kill Jump Mod |------| C = 0, 1 case inversion | | Data Pack Off Quit | | Q = 0, 1 exit menu with ON/CLEAR | ------------------------------- ----------------------------------- | ----------------------------------------- | FIND & JUMP subcommands | Edit | Delete | -----------------------------------------


XBASE - Quick Reference ======================= ----------------------------------------------- ---------------- | XBASE menu | | TABS options | |----------------------------------------------- ----------------| | Find Save Use Data Pack Off Inst Jump Cat |------| Space Tab Line | | View Name Alt Kill Tabs Mod Quit | | Comma Defn | ----------------------------------------------- ---------------- | | | | | ----------------------------------------------------------- | | | FIND & JUMP subcommands | Edit Move Copy | Delete | Print | | | ----------------------------------------------------------- | | | | --------------------------------- ----------------------- | | | VIEW submenu | | RANK submenu | | | |---------------------------------| |-----------------------| | ---| Disp VIEW Stat Rank Wipe Quit |------| Disp Copy RANK Alt | | | Move Copy Kill List Pick Alt | | List Pick Quit | | --------------------------------- ----------------------- | ------------------------------------------------------------------------- | MOD options | Print : Select (P) Enhance (E) | |--------------------------------------|----------------------------------| | C = 0, 1 case inversion | Select (P) 0 No Esc codes | | Q = 0, 1 exit menus with ON/CLEAR | 4 Psion 20 col | |--------------------------------------| 1 Epson 10 cpi 5 Psion 40 col | | S = 0..3 sort parameter | 2 Epson 12 cpi 6 Psion 60 col | |--------------------------------------| 3 Epson 15 cpi 7 Psion 80 col | | R = 0 continuous (label) print |----------------------------------| | R>= 1 paged output (max 87 pp) | 0, 4 default Enhance (E) | |--------------------------------------| 1, 5 condensed 4..7 Bold | | L = 0..3 inter record spacing | 2, 6 double width | | F = 0, 1 terminating form feed | 3, 7 condensed double width | -------------------------------------------------------------------------


UTIL - Quick Reference ====================== ---------------- ----------------- | FORMS submenu | | UTIL menu | ---------------- |----------------| |-----------------| | SETUP submenu | | Make Pack Copy |------| Forms Diary Key | |----------------| | View Data Kill | | Setup |------| Save Pack Kill | ---------------- ----------------- ----------------

© Cubsoft 1988,89


QDIARY - Quick Reference ======================== ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | Exit | Find Text | - 30 Minutes + | - 24 Hours (day) + | | ON/CLEAR | MODE | UP DOWN | LEFT RIGHT | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | Mark A | Mark B | Mark C | Mark D | Mark E | Mark F | | A | B | C | D | E | F | |-----------------------------------------------------------------------| | Jump A | Jump B | Jump C | Jump D | Jump E | Jump F | | G | H | I | J | K | L | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | 09:00 | 12:00 | 15:00 | 18:00 | 21:00 | Undo Key | | M | N | O | P | Q | R | |-----------------------------------------------------------------------| | - 60 Minutes (hour) + | - Search For Text + | - 7 Days (week) + | | S T | U V | W X | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | Tidy | Del / Ins | - Locate Entry + | Full Date | Edit Key | | SHIFT DEL | DEL | Y Z | SPACE | EXE | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | | ----------------------------------------- -------------------------- | DEL (occupied slot) | INS (blank slot) | | FULL DATE | |-----------------------------------------| |--------------------------| | MOVE - delete copying to hold buffer | | - Month + | - Year + | | COPY - copy to hold buffer | | UP DOWN | LEFT RIGHT | | KILL - delete | |------------+-------------| |-----------------------------------------| | Quit & Exit| Save & Exit | | INSERT - copy hold buffer to empty slot | | SPACE | EXE | ----------------------------------------- --------------------------


MINIKEY - Quick Reference ========================= ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | Hot Key Sequence Function | |-----------------------------------------------------------------------| | MODE MODE or SHIFT MODE | action MODE key when hot key is unshifted | | | | | (shift) MODE UP A - Z | case inversion A - Z, a - z | | (shift) MODE DOWN | hash or pound sign | | (shift) MODE LEFT A - L | assign function keys A - L | | (shift) MODE RIGHT | start / stop recording | | (shift) MODE A - L | replay function keys A - L | | (shift) MODE H - Z | insert (replay) punctuation marks (below) | | (shift) MODE SPACE | insert (replay) break char actor | | (shift) MODE EXE | replay most recent recording | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------- --------------- | Punctuation Marks and Foreign Characters M - Z | | Foreign Chars | |---------------------------------------------------| |---------------| | M [ | N ] | O ' | P ! | Q ? | R _ || Y ^ | | M ä | N ö | |------+------+------+------+--------+------||------| |-------+-------| | S { | T } | U ¶ | V & | W hash | X | || Z ` | | S ü | T ß | ------------------------------------------- ------ ---------------

© Cubsoft 1988,89


XBASE Version 2.0
FOR THE PSION ORGANISER II
TUTORIAL AND SUPPLEMENTARY INSTRUCTION MANUAL

© Cubsoft 1988/89

XBASE Version 2.0
TUTORIAL

In this tutorial we will install XBASE as a data resident program, set up a file called ADDR on drive A to hold names, addresses, telephone numbers and a memo field. We will enter data into the file, show how to find and alter data, finally we will sort the file and print it.

Installing XBASE

Insert the XBASE datapack into slot B or C. Add XBASE to the top level menu and run it. Press ON/CLEAR to remove the copyright notice and select DATA from the menu to complete the installation process. XBASE may now be accessed by running XB from the top level menu (you must have the XBASE datapack available to run this program).

Setting up prompts for the address file

Insert UTIL into the top level menu and run it. clear the copyright notice and select FORMS and then MAKE. Type in the file name (ADDR) and press enter. Select LOWER and then enter the prompts one at a time as follows :

FIELD   PROMPT   COMMENT
Aname press MODE twice for data entry in lower (mixed) case and press the EXE key.
Baddr 1
Caddr 2
Daddr 3
Eaddr 4just press EXE for upper case.
Fwork telpress MODE once then EXE for entry of numeric data.
Ghome tel
Hmemolike name.

Finally press EXE once more on a blank line to complete entry of the prompts and select SAVE to save them to drive A.

Entering data

Before we can enter data into the address file two steps are required :

  1. create the address file.
  2. enable case inversion.

To create the address file select USE from the XB menu, type ADDR and press the EXE key, confirm that you wish to create a new file.

To turn on case inversion select MOD from the XB menu (just press M, all XBASE menu items start with unique letters). The display shows a variety of parameter settings, for now press C to change the C flag from 0 to 1 and then press MODE to save the change you have made.

Now we can input some data, select DATA from the menu, the display should show :

Data A:ADDR  

Press EXE and enter the following data :

PROMPT      WHAT YOU TYPE
Name Amike.leigh
Addr 1 Bcubsoft
Addr 2 C6.okeover.road
Addr 3 Dsalford
Addr 4 EM7 OJX
Work tel F061 792 2871
Home tel G061 792 2871
Memo Hpsion organiser software

After you have entered the memo data you will see the SAVE screen :

Save A:ADDR   Mike Leigh

Use the arrow keys to move around the record (which you can edit if you have made any input errors) and observe how the lower case letters at the start of each line and those preceded by a dot (.) have been capitalized (the dot being replaced by a space). Without case inversion the data would be saved exactly as typed. Look at MINIKEY for an alternative way of switching case.

To save the data press EXE (or ON/CLEAR to abandon it). You will be asked if you wish to enter more data, reply Y to enter another 5 or 6 records.

The letters which appear to the right of the prompts are called field identifiers and are used to refer to fields when for example you are formatting data for printing.

Finding, editing and deleting data

Now that we have got some data to look at select FIND and press EXE to review the records. Press EXE to scroll through the file. When you reach the end of file a message is displayed - press SPACE to scroll backwards through the file.

Repeat the above procedure entering a search clue at the FIND prompt, note how when you scroll back through the file with SPACE only matching records are displayed - this is a feature unique to the XBASE software.

Again with FIND select a record to edit and press MODE, make changes to the data and press EXE to save it. Delete a record by pressing SHIFT DEL.

Printing Data

If you have a Comms Link or RS232 Interface and a printer (or the Psion printer) you can print from XBASE either by pressing DEL from within FIND or using the LIST option described below. Make sure your printer is connected (and booted) before running XB.

For the purpose of this tutorial we will print a list of names and telephone numbers in the following format :

Name Work tel Home tel

The name is printed with a left hand margin of 3 spaces and the telephone numbers start in columns 41 and 61 respectively.

First we need to set up tab stops at print positions 41 and 61. Select TABS from the menu, select DEFN, type 46 and press EXE.

Next we need to tell XBASE that we are using an Epson compatible printer in 80 column mode. Select MOD and press P to change the value to 1. Press the MODE key to save the new setting.

To print the file select VIEW and then PICK (to specify the record layout). Enter the following 'pick string' and press EXE.

...AFG

This string which contains a mixture of field identifiers and print control characters may be interpreted as follows :

... print 3 spaces (left margin)
AFG print fields A, F and G (tabbed)

Finally to generate the printed file select LIST and press Y to format the output using the 'pick string'.

Sorting Data

To sort the file by name select VIEW and then RANK. The default parameters shown will sort alphabetically on the first field in each record so just press EXE.

After a couple of seconds a total will be displayed, press EXE to show the sort (RANK) submenu.

Select DISP to look at the sorted records (try with and without using the 'pick string'). Use LIST to print the file.

Repeat using UP to change the Offset to 63. Can you figure out the new sort order ?

Printing : IMPORTANT NOTE

Ensure that your COMMS Link setup does not translate tab characters (ascii 09) it you wish to tab data into columns.


XBASE Version 2.0
ENHANCEMENTS AND NEW FEATURES

INTRODUCTION

In response to feedback from users we have added to and enhanced many aspects of the XBASE suite of programs. New features of particular significance are powerful sort and print options.

Details of all additional features and enhancements are incorporated into this supplement which is bound between the back cover and the manual proper. While you can on first reading skip the supplement there have been major changes to the installation procedures so please read the following section.

INSTALLATION PROCEDURES

This section replaces the corresponding section in the manual proper. MBASE, XBASE and QDIARY can now be run as conventional OPL programs under the synonyms MB, XB and QD from the XBASE datapack or made memory resident and run as XBASE, MBASE or QDIARY. MINIKEY can only be run as a memory resident program.

Data Resident Versions

To run MB, XB or QD from the datapack you must first go through an initial installation process which reserves a small amount of memory for use by the software. To install XB for example insert XBASE in the top level menu, ensure the XBASE datapack is available and select XBASE from the menu. Once you have cleared the copyright notice select DATA to complete the installation process.

You can now run XB at any time by placing the XBASE datapack in slot B or C and running XB from the top level menu. Once the initial menu is displayed you can remove the XBASE datapack freeing both slots. When you quit XB all options, parameters and file names currently in use are copied to a reserved block of memory - these values are restored as defaults next time you run XB.

To free the reserved memory (which you must do for example if you wish to reinstall the software in its memory resident mode) repeat the installation process and respond Y to the 'reboot' prompt.

The data resident software automatically loads into LOW memory on a 32K XP if sufficient room available. To all intents and purposes the data resident versions of the software may be viewed as memory resident versions which automatically install themselves each time they are used and deinstall themselves as they are quit.

Memory Resident Versions

Repeat the above installation process selecting FROG from the menu. On a 32K XP you will be asked to select LOW or HIGH memory as explained in the manual proper.

Deinstallation of the memory resident versions of the software and 'fixing' of the top level menu are as described in the manual proper.

Note that as MINIKEY can only be run in memory resident mode the PROG DATA menu is not displayed when you install KEYM.

Installation Parameters

Installation parameters for QDIARY and MINIKEY are now set via a special utility program UTIL, for MBASE and XBASE an extra option MOD (mode) has been added to the main menu, see the relevant sections below.

Getting the Best of Both Worlds

XBASE is a large program (5K), over 3 times the size of MBASE. If you are using the spreadsheet you may find that installing MBASE in memory resident mode (in high memory) together with XBASE in data resident mode a useful combination. Day to day queries and data entry can be handled by MBASE with no need to swap datapacks, the powerful sort and print facilities provided by XBASE can be accessed by running XB from the XBASE datapack.

MINIKEY

The installation options may be set by running UTIL from the datapack and selecting KEY. An error message will be issued if MINIKEY is not currently memory resident.

A new installation option has been added which allows you to choose SHIFT MODE as the hot key. All MINIKEY options are then actioned by pressing SHIFT MODE, the MODE key (unshifted) acts as normal.

The maximum size of each function key recording has been increased from 24 to 60 characters.

QDIARY

The installation options may be set by running UTIL from the datapack and selecting DIARY. An error message will be issued if QDIARY is not currently either memory or data resident.

The case inversion algorithm has been modified so that the first character on a line will be capitalized even if it has not been preceded by a dot.

The installation option to enable / disable keys M-X (tab & move) is no longer available. Keys M-X are always active.

MBASE

Installation Parameters

There are two installation options which may be altered by selecting MOD from the main menu. The following screen will be displayed.

C=0 Q=0  

Press C to toggle the case inversion flag (0 = off, 1 = on). The case inversion algorithm has been modified so that the first character on each line will be capitalized even if it has not been preceded by a dot.

Press Q to toggle the quit flag (0 = off, 1 = on). This is a new option, when set on you may exit the main menu by pressing either Q for quit or ON/CLEAR (when set off you must use QUIT).

For XBASE the quit flag also affects the VIEW and RANK menus.

To save the current setting press MODE. To abandon press ON/CLEAR.

Changes to FIND

A new action has been added to allow movement backwards through a file, press SPACE to retrieve the previous matching record. If you are already positioned at the first matching record in the file an error beep will sound.

The SPACE key is also active when the END OF FILE or NEW RECORDS messages are displayed taking you back to the last displayed record.

To facilitate easy processing of records near the end of a file, EXE no longer clears the END OF FILE message, to return to the beginning of the file press MODE and then EXE.

The JUMP option

This option provides an alternative to FIND for locating recently entered data. JUMP functions in an identical manner to FIND but you are initially positioned to the last (rather than first) matching record in the file.

User defined prompts - DATA

You may set up user defined prompts for any file on your system - the FORMS option within the UTIL program (see below) allows you to create and manage prompt files.

When you select DATA from the menu an additional screen is displayed :

Data A:MAIN  

Select the file and drive with the MODE key and press EXE to begin data entry, if prompts have been set up for the file in question they will replace the default prompts and the keyboard status will be set accordingly (see below).

For convenience the field indicator (A-Z) is shown on the extreme right of the display (XBASE only - see PICK below).

The maximum number of fields which can be entered per record is 26 if no prompts have been set up. Data entry is terminated for the current record when you press MODE, all available record space has been used up or once the last field has been entered (the last defined prompt or field 26).

Once data entry is complete the save screen will be displayed from which you can make any changes which are required. Press EXE to save or ON/CLEAR to abandon. In either case you will be asked if you wish to enter data for another record, respond Y or N as appropriate.

The FORMS option - UTIL

The prompts for data entry are held in special files called prompt files. They may be created and accessed from the FORMS option of the UTIL program.

To enter data using customized prompts you must set up a prompt file of the SAME NAME on the SAME DRIVE as where the data is to be held.

The FORMS option displays the following menu :

Make Pack Copy   View Data Kill

MAKEcreates a new prompt file
VIEWshows contents of a prompt file
PACKshows a directory of prompt files
DATAshows a directory of data files
COPYcopies a prompt file
KILLdeletes a prompt file

Creating a Prompt file

Select a drive with the MODE key and enter the file name. From the submenu select UPPER to type prompts in upper case or LOWER to type in lower case (the first character will be capitalized so that 'address' will be saved as 'Address').

Enter the prompts one at a time. The field letter (A-Z) and field number are shown on the top line. Prompts may be up to 16 characters each. Up to 26 prompts may be defined however the maximum size of a prompt file is restricted to 254 characters.

To complete entry of the prompts enter a blank line. An update menu will appear. The EDIT option allows entry of further prompt lines (you entered a blank line in error) provided you have not used up all 26 lines and there is space to hold further prompt data.

The keyboard status during data entry may be set for each prompt line. By pressing MODE before moving on to the next line you can set either or both the CAP and NUM locks on (MODE cycles through all 4 combinations), the current setting is echoed on the right hand side of the top line.

Viewing a Prompt file

Select a drive and type the file name. Use EXE and SPACE to move through the prompt lines.

Copying Prompt files

Use MODE to select a drive and type the file name for the source file, repeat for the destination file (and drive) shown on the second line.

XBASE

Enhanced KILL and ALT

Pressing EXE without typing a file name brings up the current file name. This may be blank if you have selected a drive (only) with USE but not yet accessed any files.

For convenience ALT can be accessed from the VIEW (and RANK) submenus.

Changes to STAT and file statistics.

The byte count (use SPACE to toggle) is only available from within the STAT option, the SPACE key is ignored when record counts are displayed for any of the other options.

The byte count display has been modified to show the size of largest record (excluding the 2 byte record header) on the left hand size of the display.

Formatting a RAM Pack - WIPE

To completely erase all data from a RAM pack place the pack in drive C, select WIPE from the VIEW menu, answer Y to the prompt and press SHIFT DEL. The RAM pack will be resized by the operating system and you will he returned to the VIEW menu.

If there is no pack in the C drive or the pack is a normal datapack (EPROM), an error message will be displayed. No harm can be done to an EPROM pack in this manner.

Printing from within FIND

If you are plugged into a Psion printer or the RS232 / COMMS LINK is connected you can print records individually by pressing DEL and answering Y to the prompt.

The default separator between fields can be set to a Tab, Space, Comma or New Line character - see print options below.

Printing from within VIEW (or RANK)

Select LIST from the VIEW menu to print the current group of selected records. To print a sorted group of records select LIST from the RANK menu.

FORMATTING OUTPUT - PICK

By defining a Pick string you can select which fields are to be displayed, copied or printed from within VIEW.

Select PICK from the VIEW (or RANK] submenu. The following screen will appear.

Pick  

Enter the fields to be output (A=1, B=2 etc) in the order they are to appear. Press EXE to save the new settings or ON/CLEAR to retain the previous settings, you may leave the pick string blank.

Up to 26 fields may be specified, fields may be repeated. In addition to the letters A-Z you may include print control characters, these will be ignored during display and when records are copied from one file to another (control characters are 0-9, dot, comma, dash and slash). An error beep will sound if the pick string contains invalid characters. A pick string may be up to 63 characters in length.

If a pick string has been set up you will be prompted 'Pick y/n ?' when you select DISP, COPY, STAT or LIST. If you answer Y only the fields specified in the pick string will be output.

For convenience the PICK option is duplicated on the RANK submenu.

SORTING FILES - RANK

The RANK option allows you to sort a file alphabetically or numerically on the contents of a specific field. Once sorted you may view the sorted file and / or copy it to another file and / or drive. The original file is not modified in any way by the sort process. You may sort just part of a file by specifying suitable selection criteria to VIEW. Select RANK and the sort parameter screen will be displayed.

Order A-Z Len nn Offset nn Key nn

The parameters are explained in the following table

PARAM   VALUES   ADJUST   COMMENT
Order Below MODE Specify sort order
Len 1-16 LEFT, RIGHT   Length of sort field
Offset0-63 UP, DOWN Skip start of field
Key 1-26 W, X Select field to sort

To reset all parameters to their defaults press DEL, this provides a useful reference point when using MINIKEY or FNKEY. The Len, Offset and Key values wrap when you reach either end of their respective ranges.

Pressing MODE scrolls through the 4 sequencing options :

OPTION   COMMENT
A-ZAlpha sort in ascending sequence
9-0Numeric sort by value, largest first
0-9Numeric sort by value, smallest first
Z-AAlpha sort in descending sequence

The Len option specifies the length of the sort key, the default of 16 is normally acceptable however if you wish records with identical keys to appear in the same order as they are read from the datapack (stable sort) you should adjust this value to reflect the actual key length. If the file you are sorting contains many identical keys adjusting Len to match the actual key length can dramatically speed up the sort. A very fast sort on a key of just one or two characters can be obtained in this manner.

Press ON/CLEAR to abandon or EXE to accept the current settings (which will be retained as default next time you select RANK). A count will be displayed as XBASE builds an index to the data file. once the final total is displayed press any key (ON/CLEAR to quit) to bring up the following menu :

Disp Copy Rank   List Pick Quit Alt

If you wish to abandon the sort before the final total is displayed press ON/CLEAR to pause and ON/CLEAR again to quit. There may be a delay before the pause takes effect (which can be quite considerable for ill-conditioned data) while the current record is processed.

The sorted data can be displayed, copied to another file, printed or resorted on another field.

From the DISP option the following actions are available :

ACTION   KEY   COMMENT
Next EXE view next record (beep last)
Prev SPACE view prev record (beep first)
Quit ON/CLEAR   return to RANK submenu
LocateMODE locate record on short key

The LOCATE action (only available when sorting text) allows you to enter a one or two character key, you will be positioned at a point in the file corresponding to the key. For example if you have sorted a file by name entering a key of J will locate the first name beginning with J, a key of JO will find the first record starting with JO.

Sorting by Surname

An offset of 63 has a special meaning, the sort key is taken to be the right most word in the field. The sort will be A-Z on up to 16 characters of text, the order option is reset to A-Z accordingly.

This option allows a free format name field to be sorted on the surname. If a record contains 'John F Kennedy' the sort will be on the word 'Kennedy'.

Advanced sorting methods - Multiple and split keys

Suppose each record in a file contains a department in field 1 and name in field 2, we wish to sort by name within department. First sort on the home field (minor key) in the normal way. Then select RANK from the submenu and sort again this time on the department field (major key). Finally use DISP to examine and / or COPY to copy the sorted file (or LIST to print it).

You may sort on as many fields as you wish providing you work up from the minor or least significant key to the major key. You do not need to save the output from each sort stage. No additional memory is required to perform the second and subsequent sort passes.

Sorting on multiple keys relies heavily on a stable sort being performed at each pass (bar the first). lf you are sorting on part of a field you should adjust the Len opt on for each pass of the file.

By sorting on the same field twice with different offsets you can sort on a split key. You must set the Len option appropriately for each part of the key.

Splitting a key and sorting in two passes can sometimes produce a faster sort. For example if a field is made up of a two character department code followed by a 6 digit order number and assuming there are relatively few departments sorting first by order number (alpha or numeric) and then by department code will produce the most efficient sort. Note however that if most of the file is already in the correct sequence (a sorted file to records have been added and / or a small proportion of the records amended) than a sort on the full key is the method of choice (see technical notes).

You can change the sort order at each pass to produce a file sorted on both textual and numeric data is ascending and / or descending sequence.

Technical notes

The XBASE sort has been optimized to take advantage of any pre-existing sort order in the file. Pre-sorted files which have been amended (say 10% of the records no longer in sequence) will sort faster (index building) and take less time to copy than a file whose records are in random order.

A numeric sort on a numeric key will be faster than an alpha sort on the same key treated as a text string.

The XBASE sort is based on a 16 character key constructed by extracting up to 16 bytes of data from the key field ignoring data at the beginning of the field if an offset has been specified. Keys are padded with spaces where necessary. For a numeric sort data is converted to floating point and sorted by value. Invalid numbers are treated as zero.

Each record selected by VIEW for sorting requires an overhead of 6 additional bytes of memory.

The sort efficiency parameter S may be modified from the MOD option, the permitted range of values is 0 - 3. Use the lowest value possible (for fastest sorting) however note the following restrictions.

S = 0cannot sort beyond file posn 511.
S = 1cannot sort beyond file posn 1023.
S = 2cannot sort beyond file posn 2047.
S = 3cannot sort beyond file posn 4095.

For files with less than 512 records use the default setting, if you get a STACK OVERFLOW error during a sort you should increase S by 1 and try again.

PRINT OPTIONS

The following sections explain how to customize the print options. The print process is divided into three stages :

At the start of a print run (when you first print from within FIND or when you select the LIST option) an initialization sequence is sent to the printer.

Records are printed individually (FIND) or as a group (LIST).

when you return to the main menu from FIND or the VIEW (or RANK) submenu from LIST a closing print sequence is sent to the printer.

Initialization sequence

The P (printer select) parameter from within MOD (main menu) allows you to specify how the printer should be initialized. Permissible values are

0   no initialization sequence sent.
1Epson, 80 cols, 6 lines per inch.
2Epson, 96 cols, 6 lines per inch.
3Epson, 120 cols, 8 lines per inch.
4Psion printer in 20 column mode.
5Psion printer in 40 column mode.
6Psion printer in 60 column mode.
7Psion printer in 80 column mode.

Press P to scroll through the range of values and then MODE to save the settings or ON/CLEAR to cancel changes made.

Options 1-7 also send a carriage return at the start of the print run. The software and escape sequences are so designed that Psion settings (except for the carriage return) are ignored by an Epson printer and vice versa.

Options 1-3 send an Escape D control sequence if you have set tab stops as explained below.

In addition options 1-3 may be modified by adjusting the E (enhanced print) parameter as follows :

0,4   default
1,5condensed
2,6double width
3,7double width condensed

Not all combinations may be valid for your printer. In particular in 120 column mode the condensed print setting is ignored. Use settings 4-7 for BOLD.

Closing Printer Sequences

The closing printer sequence is controlled with the F (form feed parameter).

0   An EOF mark (Ctrl Z) is sent to the printer.
1A form feed and EOF are sent to the printer.

The EOF character is ignored by the printer, however if you print indirectly via a PC the EOF will enable the PC to determine when data transmission is complete.

To direct print out via a PC to a parallel printer attached to LPT1 type

COPY COM1 LPT1 (to list to a printer)
COPY COM1 MYFILE (to list to a file)

at the PC console and issue LIST (or print from FIND) on the organiser, printing will not start until you reach a menu (closing print sequence sent).

Page Formatting Parameters

The L (line feed) parameter may be used to specify how many additional blank lines are to be printed between each record. The allowable range is 0 - 3.

The R (record count) parameter controls how many records are to be printed on a page.

Suppose we are printing records which take up 2 / 3 lines each and are followed by one blank line. Assume a page depth of 66 lines, at a maximum of 4 lines per record we can comfortably fit 15 records per page. By setting the record count to 15 we can ensure that records are never printed across the boundary between two pages.

The range for the record count is 0 - 87 (max A4 at 8 lines per inch). Unlike the other parameters two keys may be used to adjust the value. Pressing R (-) decreases the value while X (+) increases the value.

When set to a non zero value a form feed is sent to the printer when the record count is exhausted (for each page). When set to zero records are printed continuously with no extra form feeds.

To maintain consistency between the first and subsequent pages a line feed is sent following the form feed if the printer select parameter is non zero.

Printer Errors

If an error occurs while printing a beep will sound and a 'Retry y/n ?' prompt will be displayed. If you decide to abandon the print the printer will be marked as closed (so that an initialization sequence will be included at the start of the next print run) however the closing print sequence will not be sent to the printer.

Field Delimiters and Tabs

Default delimiters between fields may be set via the main menu TABS option, when XBASE is first loaded the delimiter is set to a TAB character.

Space Tab Line   Comma (-) Defn

Select the delimiter you require by pressing S, T, L or C. The corresponding character (space shown as (.), tab as (-) and new line as (/)) is echoed in the square brackets for confirmation. Press MODE to accept or ON/CLEAR to cancel any change you have made.

The default field delimiter is used to separate fields when records are printed from within FIND. They are also applied to data printed with LIST unless a pick string is being used to format the output.

The final option DEFN is used to specify tab stops. By default they are 0.8 inches apart when you first switch an Epson printer. While tabs create space between records unless they are spaced sufficiently wide apart corresponding fields for different records can end up being printed in different columns.

By setting your own tab stops balanced listings can be produced with ease. XBASE allows you to set tabs at any of the following positions :

11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 and 91

Additional tab stops at 10 character intervals up to 151 are automatically appended to any tabs you set.

To set tabs select DEFN and type the 'tens' column of the tabs (e.g. 4 for tab stop 41). Tabs must be given in ascending order (error beep if you enter an invalid tab string). Some examples should clarify how this works.

123456789 sets tabs 11 to 91; then 101 - 151
1 same effect, 11 then 21 - 151
47 tabs at 41, 71 and then 81 - 151

If you have 3 fields to each record and wish to print in columns 1, 61 and 81 set the tab string to 48.

Once you have entered a tab string press EXE to save or ON/CLEAR to cancel. If you leave the tab string blank no tabs will set by XBASE however any existing tab settings (e.g. printer defaults) will remain in effect.

For the Psion printer there is only one tab in the centre of the paper! You cannot change the tabs for the Psion printer.

In passing you should note that the MINIKEY pound character is converted to a printable pound sign by XBASE for the Psion printer. Use the MINIKEY pound translate facility if you wish to print MINIKEY pounds on an Epson printer.

Advanced Formatting Techniques

By embedding special characters into a Pick string you can control explicitly the printing of individual fields. The rules are as follows :

Consecutive fields are separated by tabs (default delimiter is ignored). So ACE will print fields 1, 3 and 5 separated by tabs.

Printing : IMPORTANT NOTE

Ensure that your COMMS Link setup does not translate tab characters (ascii 9) if you wish to tab data into columns.

Fields which are separated by control characters will be positioned by reference to the characters specified.

A dot (.) inserts a space between fields.
A comma (,) inserts a comma between fields.
A dash (-) inserts a tab between fields.
A slash (/) advances to start of next line.

Characters 0 - 9 allow the print head to be moved to the left of a tab position.

0 has the same effect as tab (-).
1-9 tab followed by 1-9 backspace chars.

So if tabs are set at 41 and you specify a pick string of A3B then field 1 will print in column 1 and field 2 in column 38 (41 - 3). You can position to the right of a tab by including a tab (-) followed by a series of spaces (...) in your pick string.

You can use codes 0-9 to print to the left of the central tab on the Psion printer.

Working out column widths

The maximum record size displayed with the STAT option may be used to compute field widths. Some examples should make this clear :

To calculate the width of field 3 set the pick string to 'C' and run the STAT option (answer Y to the pick prompt).

For fields 1 and 2 separated by a space or comma use 'AB'.

If fields are to be separated by more than a single character the width must be adjusted accordingly. If you intend to print 'A...B...C' in one column use 'ABC' and add 4 (two extra characters between each field) to the displayed total.

Hints and Tips for Printing

Set F and R to 0 and use a pick string (to ensure every record takes up a fixed number of lines) when printing address labels.

You can head up a the first page of a report by setting up a file of print headings. Set F to 0 and print the page and column headings using FIND then set F to 1 and print your data with LIST.

A Worked Example

Suppose we have a file of names and addresses, arranged in sequence Name, Telephone Number, Address Line 1, Address Line 2, Town and Post Code.

We wish to print the file sorted by name with Name and Address Line 1 on the first line, Address Line 2 on the second line and Telephone Number followed by Town and Post code (separated by a comma and space) on the third line in a format like the one shown below :

Name Address Line 1   Address Line 2   Telephone Number Town, Post code    

with a left hand margin of 2 characters and a blank line between records, 15 records are to be printed per page. The second column of data is to print in column 35. To ensure all data will fit on one line data will be printed 96 characters per line.

First use MOD to set P to 2, L to 1, F to 1 and R to 15.

Use TABS and DEFN to set a tab at 41 (tab string is just '4')

Next select VIEW and then RANK, set the sort field to 1 and the offset to 63.

Once the date is sorted select Pick and enter the following pick string

..A6C/6D/..B6E,.F

Finally print the data with LIST.

The pick string may be analysed as follows :

..A print Name after 2 spaces
6 tab to 41 and backspace 6
C/ print Address 1 then new line
6 tab to 41 and backspace 6
D/ print Address 2 then new line
..B print Tel No after 2 spaces
6E,. print Town in column 35 then ", "
F finally print the Post Code

An identical printout could be achieved by setting L to 0 and adding an extra slash at the end of he pick string. Placing the slash at the start of the pick string would have the effect of moving the output one line down the page creating a slightly larger top margin.

Epson Printer Escape sequences

The following codes are sent :

1.  Esc @ P = 1,2,3
2. Esc P P = 1
Esc M P = 2
Esc g, Esc 0     P = 3
3. SI E = 1,3,5,7
Esc W SOH E = 2,3,6,7
Esc G E = 4,5,6,7

Note that a printer reset is always sent and that double strike is used for bold print.

SAVING THE CURRENT XBASE CONFIGURATION

In order to simplify the tasks of sorting and printing files you_can save the current XBASE (or XB) configuration in a file. To do this quit XBASE and then run the UTIL program selecting SETUP from the menu. The following menu will be presented.

Save Pack Kill  

SAVE   saves the current XBASE configuration.
PACK shows a directory of config files.
KILL deletes a configuration file.

Each configuration file holds the following information :

  1. USE and ALT file names.
  2. MOD and TABS settings.
  3. Current pick string and pick mode (PICK).
  4. Sort parameters (RANK).

LOADING XBASE CONFIGURATION FILES - INST and CAT

To load a configuration file (you do this from within XBASE itself) select the installation option INST from the main menu and enter the name of the config file you wish to load (or press EXE to call up the name of the data file currently in use).

The CAT option may be used to show a directory or catalog of configuration files held on a particular drive (same as UTIL SETUP PACK option above).

MEMORY REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM   SIZE      HEX   DEC    OVERHEAD
MBASE 1.60 K 6611633512 bytes
XBASE 5.65 K15CD5581512 bytes
QDIARY 1.55 K 6361590128 bytes
KEYM 1.05 K 42D1069 0 bytes
UTIL 2.30 K 91E2334 0 bytes

The 'overhead' column shows the additional amount of memory required when a particular program is actually running. XBASE requires an additional 4 bytes of memory during sort operations for each record sorted.

Approximately 0.5 K additional memory is required when the database and diary software is run in data resident mode.

EXTENSION TO COPYRIGHT NOTICE

The copyright expressed within the XBASE 1.1 manual shall extend to this supplement, the tutorial and the UTIL, XB, MB and QD programs. The REFUND program is no longer supplied as part of this package.

© Cubsoft 1988, 1989


XBASE INSTRUCTION MANUAL

September 1988

M LEIGH

Cubsoft
6 Okeover Rd
Salford
M7 0JX
Tel 061-792-2871

Note: All rights reserved. You may not copy or reproduce this manual or the MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY, MINIKEY (KEYM) or REFUND programs in part or in whole without express written permission being obtained from Cubsoft. You are permitted to load and use the MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY or MINIKEY (KEYM) memory resident programs in one machine only at a time. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this manual and the correct functioning of the MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY, MINIKEY (KEYM) and REFUND programs. However should any errors be detected in the manual or in the operation of the programs, Cubsoft would greatly appreciate being informed of them. The above notwithstanding, Cubsoft can assume no responsibility for any errors in this manual, defects within the MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY, MINIKEY (KEYM) or REFUND programs or their consequences and will not in any event be liable for any loss consequential or otherwise arising from the use of the MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY, MINIKEY (KEYM) or REFUND programs including but not restricted to loss of saved data, loss of programs (in object or source form), loss of profit or loss of contract.

Copyright © 1988 Cubsoft, 6 Okeover Rd, Salford M7 0JX

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INSTALLATION

Introduction Installation Procedure Memory Organization (32K XP) Fixing the menu - changing configuration options Removing memory resident software Error messages The refund program

MBASE

Introduction A word about drives and files The ON/CLEAR key Datapacks / power supply Mixed case edit mode Managing your files Creating a new database file Listing file names Deleting files More about drives and files New files Selecting a file for processing (via USE option) Selecting a file for processing (via MODE key) Selecting MAIN Interaction with PACK, KILL and the top level menu Error conditions Saving data to a file The SAVE option Advanced features The data entry option Finding, erasing and editing data Searching for data Searching through more than one file Deleting records Editing records Treatment of edited records

XBASE

Introduction Enhanced FIND Searching for data - multiple test values Moving and copying data Selecting a destination file - the ALT option Renaming files Enhanced PACK - datapack statistics Batch processing - the VIEW option File statistics Checking your selection criteria Making changes to the source file / selection criteria Counting records Moving and copying records Deleting records Traditional database vs Psion floating format

QDIARY

Introduction Installation options - granularity The keyboard Commands Time adjustment Date adjustment Full date (equivalent to GOTO) Locate (equivalent to LIST) Search (equivalent to FIND) Jump and mark Undo key Entering and amending diary entries Moving, copying and deleting diary entries

MINIKEY

Introduction The HOT key and the MODE key Punctuation marks Case inversion Macro recordings and function keys Macro recording Assigning a macro to a function key Limitations, errors and useful hints Turning off the key click Some more examples The pound sign Foreign characters The break character ERRORS

INSTALLATION

INTRODUCTION

In this section we illustrate the installation process with MBASE the same procedure should be followed when you install XBASE, QDIARY or MINIKEY.

For reference the following table details the memory requirements of each of the four programs :

Loader     Main Program   Size      Hex    Dec   Overhead
MBASE MBASE 1.08 K04501104512 bytes
XBASE XBASE 2.03 K081C2076512 bytes
QDIARYQDIARY 1.54 K06281576128 bytes
KEYM MINIKEY
KEYM
0.83 K0350 848 0 bytes

The 'overhead' column shows the additional amount of memory required when a particular ptogram is actually running.

INSTALLATION PROCEDURE

  1. Make sure that your battery is in good condition.
  2. Remove any bootable devices such as the Comms Link, Bar Code Reader, Spreadsheet or Spelling Checker
  3. Insert the XBASE datapack into slot B or C.
  4. Insert MBASE at a convenient place in the top level menu.
  5. Run MBASE from the top level menu.
  6. Press ON/CLEAR to clear the copyright message.

When installing MBASE on a 32K XP a menu will be displayed allowing you to select low or high memory, choose in accordance with the guidelines given below.

To complete the installation process you are required to set certain configuration options. Respond 'N' to each prompt to accept the default values.

You may now remove the XBASE datapack. Selecting MBASE from the top level menu will run the memory resident MBASE software.

MEMORY ORGANIZATION (32K XP)

The memory in the 32K XP model is split into two sections, 7K of low memory and 24K of high memory.

The 24K block of high memory corresponds to the memory on the CM and 16K XP models and provides storage space for both the diary and A drive and work space for OPL procedures and other programs.

The 7K block of low memory is reserved by the operating system for loading device driver code.

When installing MBASE you may select to load in either LOW or HIGH memory.

Here are some guidelines :

  1. If you do not intend to install any device drivers select low memory.
  2. If you frequently use the Comms Link ensure that at least 4K remains in low memory, for example load MBASE and QDIARY in low memory and MINIKEY in high memory.
  3. If you make use of the Spreadsheet program you will probably find it advantageous to install in high memory.

FIXING THE MENU - CHANGING CONFIGURATION OPTIONS

If you delete MBASE from the top level menu you will no longer be able to access the MBASE software.

In order to access MBASE again you must :

  1. Reinsert MBASE into the top level menu.
  2. Insert the XBASE datapack in slot B or C.
  3. Run MBASE from the top level menu.
  4. Press ON/ CLEAR to clear the copyright message.

A menu showing FIX and BOOT will be displayed. Select FIX and then set the configuration options as appropriate (the current settings are shown for your convenience). Finally remove the XBASE datapack.

To change the configuration options delete MBASE from the top level menu and then proceed as indicated above.

REMOVING MEMORY RESIDENT SOFTWARE

Proceed as if to change the installation options but select BOOT from the menu. Make sure there are no device drivers installed.

You must boot from low (high) memory in the reverse sequence to which installation was carried out. The following example should make this clear.

Installed MBASE (low), XBASE (high), QDIARY (high), MINIKEY (low).

Must remove MINIKEY (low) before MBASE (low).

Must remove QDIARY (high) before XBASE (high).

May however boot QDIARY (high) without first removing MINIKEY (low).

On the CM and 16K XP models software is always installed in high memory.

ERROR MESSAGES

Refer to the final chapter of the manual for an interpretation of any error messages which may be displayed during the installation, reconfiguration or boot procedures.

THE REFUND PROGRAM

This program should be run before returning the XBASE package under the 'BUY AND TRY' scheme. If you purchased the XBASE package by direct mail from Cubsoft details of how to run the REFUND package are included in a separate leaflet supplied when you purchased the software.


MBASE

INTRODUCTION

MBASE provides a simple database facility for the Psion Organiser, highly compatible with the top level FIND and SAVE functions MBASE allows you to save, search for, edit and delete data from your own database files.

The MBASE menu presents the following options :

Find Save Use   Data Pack Off Kill Quit

FIND   search for, edit and delete data
SAVEsave data
USE create or select a file for use with FIND, SAVE and DATA
DATAenter data line by line in response to numbered prompts
PACKshow a file directory
OFF switch off the Organiser from within MBASE
KILLdelete a file
QUITreturn to the top level menu

A word about drives and files

Just to review the SAVE function from the top level menu. When you save data with the SAVE command your data is in fact stored in a file called MAIN on the drive you are currently working with. If you wish to store different types of data, say for example personal contacts, business contacts, telephone numbers and a price list you have until now most probably either had to mix the data in one file or resort to keeping your information on separate datapacks.

MBASE will allow you to keep your data in separate files on one or more datapacks. Using the above example and assuming you want to keep your data on drive A you might set up 4 additional files as follows :

A:PERSONAL  personal names and addresses
A:BUSINESSbusiness names and addresses
A:TEL just names and telephone numbers for easy access
A:PRICE price list

Of course you can still use A:MAIN for example to keep a list of important things you have to do.

The ON/CLEAR key

The ON/CLEAR key can generally be used to back out step by step through an operation which has not yet been completed, however to return from MBASE to the top level menu you must specifically select the QUIT option.

Datapacks / power supply

If you are entering, editing or deleting large amounts of data which is stored (or to be stored) on a datapak you would be well advised to ensure that your batteries are in good condition or preferably use a mains adapter.

Mixed case edit mode

When you install or reconfigure MBASE you can elect for mixed case editing with automatic capitalization. In this mode text is by default entered in lower case. Any lower case text which is preceded by a full stop will be automatically capitalized the full stop being replaced by a space when the data is saved or passed for further processing.

For example '.Mary had a.little.lamb' becomes ' Mary had a Little Lamb'. Automatic capitalization does not apply when file names are entered in response to the USE and KILL prompts, however the text you type will appear in lower case if mixed case editing is enabled.

MANAGING YOUR FILES

The first thing you will want to do once you have installed MBASE is to set up some files to work with. We will go through the steps involved in setting up the sample files mentioned above.

Creating a new database file

Select USE from the menu, the following prompt will be displayed :

Use A:  

Type PERSONAL and press EXE, the display will show :

Use A:PERSONAL   Create y/n ?

Press the Y key to create A:PERSONAL. If you wish to create a file on a drive other than the one shown press MODE repeatedly to scroll through which ever drives are present on your system.

If you have typed the file name wrongly pressing ON/CLEAR or the N key will allow you to enter a new file name. To abandon completely press ON/CLEAR again and you will be returned to the menu.

Repeat the above process for files A:BUSINESS, A:PRICE, and A:TEL.

Listing file names

To see a list of the files available on a drive select PACK from the menu. The following prompt will be displayed :

Pack A:  

Press MODE to select the drive you wish to examine. Now press EXE to scroll through the files available on that drive. When you have finished press ON, CLEAR to return to the menu.

Deleting files

To delete a file select KILL from the menu. The following prompt will be displayed :

Kill A:  

Select the drive with the MODE key, type the file name and press EXE. You will be asked to confirm that you wish to delete the file. Press the Y key to continue or if you wish to abandon and return to the menu press ON/CLEAR or the N key.

A message will be displayed while the file is being deleted (which for large files on drive A can take a few moments).

If you attempt to delete the file called MAIN, in order to preserve the integrity of the operating system only the records in the file will be deleted, the file itself will still be shown when you run the PACK option and does not need to be recreated in order to be reused.

MORE ABOUT DRIVES AND FILES

You will most likely find when you use MBASE that you will work with a particular file most of the time. MBASE remembers the last drive and file accessed even if you have returned to the top level menu and / or switched your Organiser off.

To recap MBASE keeps a record of the most recently used drive and file.

When you select the FIND or SAVE options, MBASE assumes in the first instance that you want to work with the most recently used file. You can select a different file using the MODE key or with the USE option as explained in the following sections.

New files

When you create a new file with the USE option, this file will become the default for FIND and SAVE.

Selecting a file for processing (via USE option)

Select the USE option from the menu, use MODE to select a drive, type the name of the file you wish to access and press EXE.

This option is handy if you want to set up a function key with MINIKEY or FNKEY to access a particular file.

Note that when you select USE from the menu the drive shown initially is A irrespective of the default drive. You therefore have a clear point of reference on which to base your recording of keystrokes if you wish to work in conjunction with MINIKEY or FNKEY.

Selecting a file for processing (via MODE key)

From within FIND and SAVE you can change the file about to be accessed by pressing the MODE key repeatedly to scroll through a list of files drive by drive.

Selecting MAIN

You can select the first file on a datapack (usually MAIN) with the USE option selecting the drive with the mode key and then pressing EXE without a file name.

You may find this option particularly useful if you have a large number of files on the default drive and wish to use the scroll facility within FIND and SAVE to access a file on another drive. Selecting the drive with the USE option will allow you to home in directly bypassing any files held on other drives.

Interaction with PACK, KILL and the top level menu

The PACK option always defaults to drive A. Listing files on a particular drive does not change the default file.

The KILL option always defaults to drive A. Deleting a file from a drive docs not change the default file unless that is the file you have deleted in which case the new default will become the first file found on the default drive.

The selection of drives and files in MBASE is completely independent of the default drive accessed by the top level menu.

Error conditions

If MBASE is able to find a file with the same name us the default file on the default drive the defaults will remain unchanged.

If no such file exists the default file will be the first file found on the same drive.

If the default drive cannot be accessed (for example you have removed the datapack and not replaced it) the next drive on your system will become the default drive, the default file will be the first file found on that drive.

SAVING DATA TO A FILE

The SAVE option

To save data to a file select SAVE from the menu, a screen similar to the one below will be shown :

Save A:MAIN  

Note that the default file is shown on the top line and that for readability the cursor is positioned on the bottom line for you to enter your data.

Enter the data exactly as you would with the top level SAVE and when you are satisfied press the EXE key. You will be returned to the menu.

Alternatively to quit without saving any data press ON/CLEAR once or twice till you reach the menu screen, any changes to default file will be ignored.

If you wish to change the default file simply press MODE repeatedly until the correct drive and file are shown on the top line. You can do this at any stage until you press the EXE key.

The top level SAVE option allows you to press EXE without entering any data, the effect is to cancel the save operation as if you had pressed ON/CLEAR, SAVE however will not allow this, you must either enter genuine data or quit by pressing ON/CLEAR.

Advanced features

If you have installed MINIKEY or FNKEY on your system you will be able to insert break characters into your data, this will allow you to :

When you save your data any break characters will be converted to genuine new line characters (tabs).

The break character is accessed via the following key combinations :

MINIKEY MODE SPACE
FNKEY Ver 2.1 user defined function key to replay hex value A5
FNKEY Ver 2.2 MODE UP UP

The data entry option

In order to make it easier to keep track of which line you are on when inputting data MBASE provides a simple 'front end' to the save routines.

Select DATA from the menu, the following screen will be displayed :

Field 1  

Note that the current input field is shown on the top line and the cursor is positioned on the bottom line ready for you to enter data.

Type the first line of data and then press EXE to move on to the next and subsequent lines. You may enter as many lines as you like (however only data entered on the first 16 lines can be accessed through OPL programs). To enter blank lines just press EXE.

When you have finished entering your data press the MODE key, the normal SAVE screen will be displayed from which you can change the file to which the data is to be saved, make any corrections to your data which may be necessary or quit without saving your data by pressing ON/CLEAR once or twice.

When you use the data entry facility you should be aware of the following points :

MBASE adjusts the amount of data you can enter on a line to take account of data already entered, you can never enter more data than can be held in one record.

If on moving on to the next line MBASE detects that the maximum record length has been reached data entry will terminate automatically and the SAVE screen will be displayed.

There is no backtrack facility from within the data entry routine, any corrections must be made from within the SAVE screen. Pressing ON CLEAR has no effect other than to blank the current line that you are working with.

If you enter one line too many clear the final line by pressing ON/CLEAR and then press the EXE key to save your data. The extra blank line will be ignored. If you really want blank lines at the end of a record you should enter one more line than required.

FINDING, ERASING AND EDITING DATA

Searching for data

In order In streamline the MBASE package the top level FIND and ERASE functions have been combined into one. Select FIND and the following screen will be displayed:

Find A:MAIN  

Note that the default file which can be changed with the MODE key is shown on the top line and that for readability the cursor is positioned on the bottom line for you to enter your search string.

Enter the data exactly as you would with the top level FIND and when you are satisfied press the EXE key, the first matching record will be displayed.

Alternatively to abandon press ON/CLEAR to return to the menu screen, any changes made to the default file will be ignored.

Enter a null search string (i.e. just press the EXE key) to list all records in your chosen file.

Once you have entered your search string any matching records will be displayed on the screen, you may examine each record with the cursor keys as with the top level FIND function, alternatively pressing EXE moves you on to the next record. To quit FIND and return to the menu screen simply press ON/CLEAR.

Searching through more than one file

When you reach the end of the file an *** END OF FILE *** message will be displayed. At this point you can :

Press ON/CLEAR to quit.

Press EXE to start a new pass of the file.

Press MODE to redisplay the initial FIND screen.

When the initial FIND screen is redisplayed you will note that the original search string is preserved, you can edit this if you wish and/or use the MODE key to select another file to search. In this manner you can you can search for data across more than one file.

Deleting records

To delete a record press SHIFT DEL. You will be asked to confirm that you do indeed wish to delete, to abandon press ON/CLEAR or the N key and the ORIGINAL record will be redisplayed, alternatively if you press the Y key the record will be deleted and the NEXT matching record will be shown.

Editing records

To edit a record press the MODE key, a screen similar to the one shown below will appear :

Edit A:MAIN   DATA RECORD

The cursor will be positioned at the start of the record ready for you to make any changes. Use the cursor and delete keys to edit your data and when satisfied press EXE to save the new record. The old version will be deleted and the new record added to the END of the file.

If you wish to abandon without making any changes press ON/CLEAR once or twice and the ORIGINAL record will be redisplayed.

When editing data you can as with the SAVE option insert break characters to create new lines if you are using MINIKEY or FNKEY.

Some important differences from the top level FIND option should be mentioned here:

You cannot change the destination of the edited record - pressing MODE has no effect (other than to make the effect of break characters and automatic capitalization in mixed case edit mode immediately apparent). Greater flexibility is provided by the XBASE FIND option which allows you not only to edit but to move and copy records.

If you use the SAVE subcommand from within the top level FIND option and press EXE to save a null record your original record will be deleted! You can do this quite inadvertently by pressing ON/CLEAR and then EXE. For this reason both EDIT and SAVE (which uses the same routine) force you to either enter genuine text or abandon completely by pressing ON/CLEAR.

Finally after editing a record from within FIND the NEXT matching record is displayed. This allows you to edit a series of records in succession.

Treatment of edited records

As previously mentioned edited records are appended to the end of the file you are working with, consequently any such records which still contain the search string will be found again as you pass through the file. MBASE keeps track of the original end of file as you edit and delete records, when you encounter the first record edited during the current pass of the file a *** NEW RECORDS *** message is displayed.

You may at this point :


XBASE

INTRODUCTION

XBASE extends the facilities provided by MBASE allowing you to manipulate data across files in an easy and intuitive way. XBASE incorporates improved record searching Facilities enabling you to locate records which match on multiple text strings.

Three additional items have been added to the MBASE menu and the FIND and PACK options have been enhanced. The remainder of this part of the manual assumes you are familiar with MBASE and concentrates on the additional facilities provided.

The XBASE menu presents the following options :

Find Save Use   View Name All Data Pack Off Kill Quit

FIND   search for, edit, move, copy and delete data
SAVEsave data
USE create or select a file for use with FIND, SAVE and DATA
VIEWbatch processing (DISP VIEW STAT MOVE COPY KILL QUIT ALT)
NAMErename a file
ALT create or select a destination file for move or copy
DATAenter data line by line in response to numbered prompts
PACKshow datapack statistics and file directory
OFF switch off the Organiser from within XBASE
KILLdelete a file
QUITreturn to the top level menu

ENHANCED FIND

Searching for data - multiple test values

The XBASE FIND option allows you to locate records which match on more than one value. An example will best illustrate how this works.

Suppose you wish to find all Smiths living in London. The chances are that if you search on Smith you will find people located outside London, conversely a search for Londoners will call up other names besides Smith.

Select FIND from the menu, enter London for the search clue but instead of pressing EXE use the DOWN key to move onto the next line. Type Smith and press EXE - all records containing both phrases will be located.

To summarize you enter your search clues on individual lines, you can edit your 'search record' in exactly the same way as if you were saving data with the SAVE command.

In general searching for records will be faster if you enter your search strings in order of increasing likelihood of finding a match. For the example used above if you had more Londoners than Smiths you would enter Smith as the first search string and then London as the next.

If you are using MINIKEY or FNKEY you can insert break characters to split your search text. Using this technique you can if need be search on more than 16 pieces of text. Blank lines will be ignored.

Moving and copying data

Two additional options are available when you press MODE from within the FIND option. When you first press MODE you enter the EDIT screen exactly as when using MBASE. Pressing MODE repeatedly cycles you through the MOVE and COPY screen in the following sequence:

Edit A:SRCE   DATA RECORD MODE
Move#A:SRCE   DATA RECORD MODE
Copy#A:SRCE   DATA RECORD MODE
Edit A:SRCE   DATA RECORD

Note the box character which acts as a reminder that a MOVE or COPY is in effect.

The source file is the file you are searching with FIND, the destination file is set via the ALT option as explained in the next section.

You may from any of these three screens edit the record (inserting break characters if you wish) and then press EXE to save, move or copy the edited record (the NEXT matching record will be displayed) or if you wish to abandon press ON/CLEAR once or twice and the ORIGINAL record will be displayed.

If the source and destination files coincide the EDIT and MOVE options in effect perform an identical function while COPY allows you to take an existing record and use it as a template for adding new data.

Selecting a destination file - the ALT option

In order to move or copy records from one file to another you must first specify the destination file with the ALT option. A screen similar to the one shown below will be displayed.

Alt A:  

Type the file name using the MODE key to select a drive and finally press the EXE key, alternatively you can press ON/CLEAR once or twice to abandon and return to the menu.

If the file you have specified does not exist you will be asked to confirm that you wish to create it. Press ON/CLEAR or the N key to type a new file name or Y to create the file.

XBASE does not accept a null file name to specify only the drive, you must either type a genuine File name or quit by pressing ON/CLEAR.

XBASE remembers the most recent setting of the ALT option, there is however NO scroll option to change the setting from within other menu items. An error message will be generated when XBASE tries to access the file if it (or a file with the same name on the same drive) can no longer be found.

RENAMING FILES

Select NAME from the menu, a screen similar to the one below will be displayed.

Name A:MAIN   As A:

Note that the top line displays the default file, the corresponding drive is shown on the bottom line with the cursor positioned ready for you to type the new name.

Use the MODE key to select the file you wish to rename, type the file name and press EXE. If you wish to quit press ON/CLEAR once or twice to return to the menu.

Pressing the MODE key to scroll through the list of files and drives does not charge the default file, however if you rename the default file the first file found on the default drive will become the new default.

In order to preserve the integrity of the operating system, any attempt to rename MAIN will result in a BAD FILE NAME error message and you will be returned to the menu.

ENHANCED PACK - DATAPACK STATISTICS

The PACK option has been enhanced to show the number of database files and the amount of free space on a datapack or the A drive. Once you have selected a drive the following screen will be displayed :

Files nnn Space nnnnnn

Press ON/CLEAR to return to the menu or EXE to scroll through a list of files available on the selected drive.

BATCH PROCESSING - THE VIEW OPTION

The VIEW option allows you to process a group of records as a single unit in one operation.

Select VIEW from the menu and enter your search criteria as with FIND, the following menu will be displayed :

Disp View Stat   Move Copy Kill Quit Alt

DISPexamine the records selected for processing
VIEWchange the current file and / or selection criteria
STATcount the selected records
MOVEmove the selected records (destination set by ALT)
COPYcopy the selected records (destination set by ALT)
KILLdelete the selected records
QUITreturn to the XBASE menu (you cannot use ON/CLEAR)
ALT duplicates the XBASE menu ALT option

Note that :

  1. When you select VIEW from the XBASE menu pressing ON/CLEAR to abandon returns you to the XBASE menu.
  2. When you select VIEW from the VIEW submenu pressing ON/CLEAR to abandon returns you to the VIEW submenu.
  3. You must select QUIT to return from the VIEW submenu to the XBASE menu.

File statistics

The STAT, MOVE, COPY and KILL options display a running total as records are processed.

Count nnnnn

Pressing ON/CLEAR halts processing.

Pause nnnnn

Pressing ON/CLEAR again abandons processing at this point returning you to the VIEW submenu, pressing any other key (except SPACE - see below) restarts processing.

When all records have been processed a final total is displayed.

Total nnnnn

Press any key (other than SPACE) to return to the VIEW submenu.

When the display is paused or the final total displayed the SPACE key toggles a further screen which shows the number of bytes processed so far (calculated as 'record length + 2 bytes' for each record processed).

Bytes nnnnn

Press SPACE again to show the record count screen.

The total number of bytes processed may be interpreted as the amount of storage space required to move or copy the data to a datapack.

Checking your selection criteria

DISP allows you to examine the records one at a time as with FIND, you cannot edit or delete records. Press EXE to move from one record to the next or ON/CLEAR to return to the submenu. You would normally use DISP to verify that the selection criteria you have specified (and the file you are working with) are correct.

If you move records to another file or delete records from a file DISP will show *** END OF FILE *** until you change the selection criteria or choose another file for processing.

Making changes to the source file / selection criteria

Select VIEW from the submenu, you will be returned to the initial VIEW screen with your original selection criteria displayed ready for editing. As when you first entered the VIEW screen you can use MODE to select a different file for processing.

Counting records

Selecting the STAT option causes XBASE to search for and count the number of matching records.

If you move records to another file or delete records from a file STAT will show a count of zero until you change the selection criteria or choose another file for processing.

Moving and copying records

Select MOVE or COPY from the submenu, one of the following screens will be displayed as appropriate:

Move#A:MAIN   Press Shift Del

or

Copy#A:MAIN   Press Shift Del

Note that the DESTINATION file (as set with the ALT option) is displayed on the top line. Press ON/CLEAR to return to the submenu or SHIFT DEL to initiate processing.

If both source and destination files are one and the same only one pass of the file will be made, records added to the file during processing will not be processed a second time.

Deleting records

Select KILL from the submenu, the following screen will be displayed :

Kill A:MAIN   Press Shift Del

Note that the source file is displayed on the top line. Press ON/CLEAR to return to the submenu or SHIFT DEL to initiate processing.

TRADITIONAL DATABASE vs PSION FLOATING FORMAT

This section offers some brief guidelines on how to structure your files so as to get the best out of XBASE.

Typical database packages as a rule impose a structure on any data stored within the system. Records are split into well defined fields which contain specific types of data, for example text, numeric fields, dates etc. Each field is of a specific size and has a name associated with it.

Such a system has obvious advantages for the user, you are prompted with the field name when required to enter data, data may be vetted as it is keyed into the system. To search for records you specify the field in which the data is located and its value.

While it is possible to implement a database incorporating the above features on the Organiser any such program would necessarily be large and complex. Psion in their design of the top level FIND and SAVE functions have adopted a floating format where records are processed as a single unit, consequently the record searching facilities do not distinguish fields by position.

In order to keep XBASE as small and efficient as possible we have adopted the same design philosophy in developing the XBASE package.

If you intend to keep coded data on your files, for example part numbers etc. and the code characters are likely to be duplicated elsewhere in the record or within parts of other records you will find the search routine extracting superfluous data records.

Consider a record which contains codes R, B, G for red, blue and green, a search on R for red will extract records for blue and green if for example the letter R occurs anywhere in the product description. The recommended way to solve this is by making the code unique within the record by including in the code a special identification character or sequence of characters unique to that code field. Punctuation characters such as ':' make a good choice. So for the above example we would represent the colours by :R, :B and :G, and then search on :R for red.

If you have more than one coded field you can use different punctuation characters for each (MINIKEY gives direct access to 14 special characters not normally available from the keyboard) or you can prefix the codes with 1:, 2:, 3:, etc.


QDIARY

INTRODUCTION

QDIARY provides an alternative means of accessing and updating the Psion diary in an intuitive and flexible manner.

When you select QDIARY from the top level menu a screen similar to the one shown below will be displayed.

18:30=THU:01:JAN TIME TO GO HOME

In contrast to the Psion diary display the time is shown on the left and the date on the right, this corresponds with the arrangement of the keyboard where the UP and DOWN keys which adjust the time are to the left of the LEFT and RIGHT keys which adjust the date.

The equal sign which separates the time and date indicates that an alarm is pending for the current diary entry.

Installation options - granularity

There are four options which may be set during the installation process the first three of which require a y/n prompt and are explained in subsequent sections. The final option is discussed below.

QDIARY allows you to operate the diary in one of four modes, use the arrow keys to select the setting of your choice and press EXE.

Granularity   Time Slots   Alarms
030 minutesYes
115 minutesNo
210 minutesNo
35 minutes No

The first setting is fully compatible with the Psion diary, the remaining settings allow you to operate the diary with time slots shorter than half an hour however you will no longer be able to set diary alarms on your entries.

If you select 1,2 or 3 you will be prompted to clear any diary alarms currently set.

If you change the setting from 1,2 or 3 to 0 you will be prompted to delete any entries from the diary which do not correspond with half hour boundaries (i.e. minutes set to 0 or 30).

If you set the granularity to a value other than 0 you should take care when using Psion's DIARY option to enter data into the diary NOT to set any alarms as they may not ring when expected.

If you operate QDIARY with time slots of less than 30 minutes you will probably find it advantageous to enable the tab and move keys, (see next section) the S and T keys can then be used to adjust the diary in units of one hour.

If you operate QDIARY in its default mode you may as the final step in the installation process adjust the number of minutes displayed as default for the alarm setting when you add entries to the diary.

The keyboard

The QDIARY keyboard is divided into three sections :

1. The control keys Top and bottom rows of keys excluding MODE key.
2. Jump and mark keys    A to L.
3. Tab and move keys Keys M to X and the MODE key.

The control keys are always active, the jump and mark keys may be enabled as a configuration option, likewise the tab and move keys are only active if they have been specifically enabled.

The ON/CLEAR key returns you from QDIARY to the top level menu.

COMMANDS

This section lists the various facilities available when you use QDIARY, an (*) against an entry indicates that the function is only available if the tab and move keys are enabled, (**) indicates that the mark and jump keys must be enabled.

Time adjustment

UP and DOWN adjust the time in units of 30 minutes or in accordance with the current granularity setting.

S and T adjust the time in units of one hour (*).

M, N, O, P and Q set the time to 9am, 12am, 3pm, 6pm and 9pm respectively (*)

Date adjustment

LEFT and RIGHT adjust the date in units of one day.

W and X adjust the date in units of 7 days (*).

Full date (equivalent to GOTO)

SPACE toggles a display of the month and year on the bottom line.

UP and DOWN may be used to adjust the month.

LEFT and RIGHT may be used to adjust the year.

SPACE returns to the normal diary display ignoring any changes made.

EXE returns to the normal diary display, the date reflects any changes which have been made to the month and year.

Locate (equivalent to LIST)

Y locates the previous occupied time slot relative to the current position in the diary. If no such entry exists START OF DIARY is displayed, press space to clear the message and redisplay the current time slot.

Z locates the next occupied time slot relative to the current position in the diary. If no such entry exists END OF DIARY is displayed, press space to clear the message and redisplay the current time slot.

After a locate command you can return to the time slot from which the locate was issued by pressing the undo key (see below).

Search (equivalent to FIND)

MODE allows you enter FIND text (*).

U searches for the previous occurrence of the FIND text relative to the current position in the diary. If no matching entry exists NO MATCH is displayed, press space to clear the message and redisplay the current time slot (*).

V searches for the next occurrence of the FIND text relative to the current position in the diary. If no matching entry exists NO MATCH is displayed, press space to clear the message and redisplay the current time slot (*).

After a search command you can return to the time slot from which the search was issued by pressing the undo key (see below).

Jump and mark

A to F may be used to mark up to 6 time slots in the diary, respond Y to the prompt to mark the current position in the diary (**).

G to L jump to the corresponding marked time slot (G with A, H with B,...), respond Y to the prompt to effect the jump (**).

Markers are retained when you exit QDIARY, the initial settings are 00:00 on 1st January 1900.

Undo key

The R key may be used to recover from an accidental LOCATE, SEARCH or JUMP, the current diary slot prior to the LOCATE, SEARCH or JUMP is displayed (*).

Pressing the UNDO key a second time cancels the effect of the original undo.

Entering and amending diary entries

Press EXE to enter a new or edit an existing diary entry.

If you have enabled support for lower and mixed case editing the keyboard will be set ready for you to type in lower case, any lower case letters preceded by a full stop will be automatically capitalized and the full stop replaced by a space when the entry is saved.

For example '.mary had a.little.lamb' becomes ' Mary had a Little Lamb'.

Pressing the MODE key forces the effects of automatic capitalization to be displayed immediately.

MOVING, COPYING AND DELETING DIARY ENTRIES

In order to facilitate easy diary maintenance QDIARY incorporates a powerful move and copy facility. A special area of memory termed the hold buffer is used to store data which is to be moved or copied.

When you press DEL on an OCCUPIED time slot the following menu will be displayed :

MOVE COPY KILL  

Select MOVE to move or delete the current entry. The entry will be deleted the text and alarm setting being copied to the hold buffer.

Select COPY to copy the current text and alarm setting to the hold buffer, the current entry will retained.

Select KILL to delete the current entry without affecting the contents of the hold buffer.

Note the contents of the hold buffer are lost when you quit QDIARY.

When you press the DEL key on a BLANK time slot (and data has been copied to the hold buffer during the current QDIARY session) you will be prompted :

INSERT Y/N ?  

Respond Y to copy the text and (if appropriate) the alarm setting to the current time slot. The contents of the hold buffer are not destroyed by this process and can be copied to as many vacant time slots as you wish.

To summarize :

  1. To delete an entry press DEL and select MOVE. Using MOVE rather than KILL allows you to recover from an accidental delete.
  2. To change the time and date of an entry press DEL and select MOVE. Go to the new time and date and press DEL followed by Y to reinstate the entry at the new time slot (if the time slot already contains an entry you must first press DEL and select KILL to clear the entry).
  3. To replicate an entry press DEL and select COPY. Follow the procedure for changing the time and date to duplicate the entry as many times as you wish.

MINIKEY

INTRODUCTION

Unlike MBASE, XBASE and QDIARY which once installed are accessed via the options on the top level menu MINIKEY replaces part of the Organisers operating system providing a range of additional keyboard facilities irrespective of what application you are running.

To install MINIKEY you should run the KEYM program supplied on the XBASE datapack. The memory resident software will be loaded and a configuration program KEYM added to the top level menu.

The HOT key and the MODE key

MINIKEY is activated by pressing and releasing the MODE key, this key is referred to as the HOT key and is used to initiate a sequence of one or two keystrokes which define the action to be performed.

Install MINIKEY and from the top level menu press the MODE key. Nothing happens. Press MODE again - now you are prompted to add an entry to the menu.

The sequence MODE MODE is used to simulate the normal action of the MODE key, alternatively pressing SHIFT MODE has the same effect, try it.

If you press MODE by accident and wish to cancel press ON CLEAR, DEL or SHIFT DEL.

You may disable the HOT key (so that MODE works as normal) by running the configuration program KEYM and answering Y to the prompt. Repeat the process to enable the HOT key again. You do not need the XBASE data pack to do this.

PUNCTUATION MARKS

The following punctuation marks are available :

MODE M   [
MODE N]
MODE O`
MODE P!
MODE Q?
MODE R_
MODE S   {
MODE T}
MODE U@
MODE V&
MODE W#
MODE X|
MODE Y   ^
MODE Z'

Particularly useful are ? and !. Select CALC from the top level menu and then

  1. Press and release the MODE key, press and release the P key.
  2. Press and release the MODE key, press and release the Q key.

!? should be displayed, clear the display and return to the top level menu.

Note that all key sequences recognized as special by MINIKEY are initiated by pressing the MODE key and that each key in the sequence must be pressed AND released before any action takes place.

Note also that you ignore the state of both the CAPS and NUMS locks when typing MINIKEY command sequences, so for example

MODE Q, MODE q, MODE 6 all result in a question mark.

CASE INVERSION

Select SAVE from the top level menu and type the following :

press    MODE UP M
type ARY HAD A LITTLE LAMB.
pressMODE UP H
type IS FLEECE WAS WHITE AS SNOW.

You should end up with :

mARY HAD A LITTLE LAMB. hIS FLEECE WAS WHITE AS SNOW.

Clear the display, press SHIFT UP to change the CAPS lock and repeat, you should now get :

Mary had a little lamb. His fleece was white as snow.

The rule is as follows :

If the keyboard is in upper case MODE UP A-Z gives a-z irrespective of the state of the NUMS lock. Conversely if the keyboard is in lower case MODE UP A-Z gives A-Z.

Again to recap MODE UP A requires three distinct key presses (with each key released in turn).

MACRO RECORDINGS AND FUNCTION KEYS

Now that you are familiar with some of the predefined key sequences we will set about making some macro recordings of your own, assigning them to function keys and replaying them.

Macro recording

As a simple example we will set up a macro to compute the net price from a VAT inclusive price.

Select CALC from the top level menu and type 115. Listen to the key click as you do this.

Press MODE RIGHT.

Now type *20/23 and press EXE. Listen to the key click.

100 should be displayed, you will have probably noticed the key click change in tone, this signals that macro recording is in progress.

Press MODE RIGHT again to end the recording, the key click should return to normal.

Clear the calculator and type 5198. Press MODE EXE and watch, *20/23 should appear on the screen as if you had typed it and the answer of 4520 should be displayed.

To recap :

  1. MODE RIGHT starts / stops macro recording of key strokes.
  2. MODE EXE replays the most recent recording made.

Note that MINIKEY records not only displayable characters but also cursor other control keys such as ON/CLEAR, MODE, DEL, SHIFT DEL, and EXE.

Assigning a macro to a function key

MINIKEY allows you to keep a permanent record of up to 12 macro recordings, these are associated with keys A-L. as follows :

  1. To assign a recording to a function key press MODE LEFT and a letter in the range A-L.
  2. To replay a function key press MODE and a letter in the range A-L.

To assign the VAT recording to the C key press MODE LEFT C. Note that when you press (and release) the LEFT key a beep sounds. This acts as a warning and prompt that :

  1. A further key stroke is required to complete the key sequence.
  2. A reminder to choose the correct key for making the assignment (any existing recording for the key you press will be overwritten).

If you wish to cancel after pressing MODE LEFT you may abort the command sequence with ON/CLEAR, DEL or SHIFT DEL. Pressing DEL is the preferred method.

Try MODE LEFT Z. An error beep will sound, this is because you cannot assign a recording to one of the predefined keys.

To replay the C key press MODE C.

Try this from the top level menu. Nothing appears to happen (other than a key click). this is because *20/23 is not meaningful in the context of the top level menu. Try again has within CALC after typing in a number.

Limitations, errors and useful hints

Macro recordings are restricted to a maximum of 24 characters each, attempts to a 25th character while in recording mode results in an error beep, recording is terminated (the first 24 characters of the recording are retained) and the key click returns to normal.

Replay may be aborted midway by pressing ON CLEAR. Pressing any other key before replay is complete results in an error beep and the key press being ignored.

The key click associated with the second key (A-L) when you replay a function key is only heard when replay is complete, if a click is not heard within a reasonable period of time and the keyboard appears frozen press ON/CLEAR and then Q.

A recording may be assigned to a function key even while macro recording is still in progress (the keystrokes captured to date will be assigned to the function key).

A function key may be replayed while recording is in progress, the key strokes will be added to the recording as they are replayed. If the 24 character limit is exceeded in the process recording will be terminated and the key click will revert to normal - no error beep will sound.

Turning off the key click

In order to emphasize the distinction between recording and non recording mode you can as an installation option turn the normal key click off.

  1. The recording click and warning and error beeps are unaffected.
  2. The keys associated with a command sequence still click as normal.
  3. If MINIKEY is disabled via KEYM the key board remains silent.

Some more examples

Note that if you press MODE EXE while recording is in progress an error beep will sound, you must terminate the recording by pressing MODE RIGHT before you can replay it.

The following example assume you have installed MBASE, and wish to access a file called B:STOCK, there are many files on device A and B or you are lazy, in any event pressing the MODE key to scroll through a list of files is too much bother. You are at the top level menu.

Press MODE RIGHT to start recording.

Press M (for MBASE), U (for USE) and MODE MODE (to select drive B), type STOCK and press EXE.

Press MODE RIGHT again to stop recording and MODE LEFT L to assign to the L key.

If you are using XBASE and wish to copy or move low stock items to a temporary file A:LOW for quick reference you can extend the above example to set both the source and destination files by recording :

Press X (for XBASE), U (for USE) and MODE MODE (to select drive B), type STOCK and press EXE, press A (for ALT), type LOW and finally press EXE.

THE POUND SIGN

As an installation option you may choose to enable the pseudo pound sign.

Select CALC from the top level menu and press MODE DOWN, a character closely resembling a pound sign (with ascii value ED) will be displayed.

If the pseudo pound sign is not enabled MODE DOWN replays a hash sign.

Note that ascii ED is not recognized by PC software or a printer as a pound sign, if you elect to enable pseudo pound translation any ascii ED characters encountered when data is fed via the Comms Links to a printer or PC will be translated as hash signs, conversely incoming hash signs will be converted to ascii ED on the organiser.

Hash signs (ascii 23) print as pound signs on an Epson printer set up for the UK character set.

To recap MODE DOWN generates characters as follows :

  1. Pound enabled - pseudo pound sign (ascii ED)
  2. Pound disabled - hash sign (ascii 23)

If translation is enabled :

  1. Incoming ascii 23 converted to ascii ED
  2. Outgoing ascii ED converted to ascii 23

Note that translation remains in effect even if MINIKEY or the pseudo pound sign have been disabled. Translation is effected by changing the Comms Link RTRN and TTRN parameters, when translation is disabled the original values are restored.

Ascii values are shown in hex format.

FOREIGN CHARACTERS

As an installation option you may enable selected foreign characters, the punctuation marks associated with keys M, N, S and T are replaced according to the following table (ascii values are shown in brackets) :

Key SequencePunctuationForeign
MODE M[ä
MODE N]ö
MODE S{ü
MODE T}§

Note that no special translation occurs when these codes are exported from or imported to the Organiser and that the ascii values listed above do not correspond with equivalent printer or PC codes for the same displayable characters.

THE BREAK CHARACTER

The sequence MODE SPACE replays the break character (which appears as a centralized dot). Break characters may be used when editing or inputting data from within MBASE or XBASE to insert new or blank lines into a record.

As part of the editing process break characters (ascii A5) are converted to tab characters (ascii 09 recognized as a new line on the Organiser) when the MODE or EXE key is pressed.

Break characters have no special significance outside MBASE and XBASE. Break characters inserted into a record via the top level FIND or SAVE options will not be recognized as new line (tab) characters until the record is subsequently edited and resaved from within MBASE or XBASE.

ERRORS

Three types of error message may be displayed during the load reconfiguration or boot process.

  1. INVALID CALL

    Occurs when you attempt to run MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY or KEYM from the calculator, the PROG menu or from within an OPL procedure.

    Rerun from the top level menu.

  2. CELL INVALID

    Occurs if the internal table (allocator cell 203E) has become corrupt.

    Perform a top level reset - save any important data such as A:MAIN and the diary first.

  3. ALIEN SOFTWARE

    Occurs when you try to boot MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY or KEYM and other memory resident software is already loaded at a higher and conflicting address, may also occur if you try to install KEYM when other software (such as FNKEY) already has control of the keyboard driver.

    Remove the offending software.

  4. DEVICES PRESENT

    Occurs if you try to install or boot MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY or KEYM and device drivers such as the Comms Link are present.

    Disconnect and / or remove the devices, press ON/CLEAR from the top level menu and try again.

  5. WRONG VERSION

    Occurs when you try to run MBASE, XBASE, QDIARY or KEYM from the XBASE datapack and a different version of the software is resident in memory.

    Likely to occur when upgrading from one version to another. Use the original XBASE datapack to boot old versions of the software before installing a new version.