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                                 CHAPTER 3

                            __________________
                            POWER SUPPLY BOARD



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3.1  GENERAL

     The Power Supply Board controls power regulation and  distribution  to
the  system,  and  also  carries signals from the System board to the three
external device connectors and buzzer element.

     Figure 3.1 is a schematic of the board circuit  diagram.   Connections
through  to  the  slots  are  dealt  with  in  section  4, and this section
concentrates on the power supply functions.

     The board  has  been  designed  to  operate  under  a  wide  range  of
conditions.   Supply  voltage  from the battery or external source may vary
between 5.5 and 11 volts.   Regulated  supplies  are  required  at  current
levels between 30 microamp and 170 milliamp in various operating states.



     _________________________
3.2  POWER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS

     The power supply provides five supply rails to various  parts  of  the
system :-

      -  The VCC1 rail supplies the  main  System  board  circuit,  and  is
         required  at  all  times.   When  the  Organiser  is off this rail
         supports the real-time clock and system  board  RAM,  and  a  rail
         voltage  of  3-5  volts  is  required  with a load of typically 30
         microamp.  When the Organiser is on, this rail must  be  regulated
         to 5 volt +/- 5 percent under loads up to 25 mA.

      -  The VCC2 rail supplies the system board LCD drivers.   It  is  not
         required  when  the  Organiser  is  off,  and  when  on  should be
         regulated to 5 volts +/- 5 percent with a load of typically 1 mA.

      -  The V_LCD rail is the negative voltage rail for the  System  board
         LCD.   It  is  not required when the Organiser is off, and when on
         should be adjustable by the thumbwheel to provide a V_LCD  voltage
         of  between +1.2 and -3 volts to set display contrast, with a load
         of typically 100-200 microamp.

      -  The SVCC rail supplies the external  slot  devices.   It  is  only
         required  when  the  slots  need  to be active, and so is switched
         under software control.  When on it should be regulated to 5 volts
         +/- 5 percent with variable loads up to 170 mA.

      -  The SVPP rail is a  secondary  rail  to  slots  1  and  2  of  the
         Organiser.   It is only required when the slots need to be active,
         and is switched with SVCC.  When on it is normally at a voltage of
         4.5  volts,  but  when  programming  datapacks can be raised to 21
         volts +/- 2 percent in a pulsed mode.


     The power supply provides and switches these rails  under  control  of
the  system  board,  from  a  battery  or external supply with a voltage of
between 5.5 and 11 volts.

     The main operating states are defined by the ON_B and PACON_B  signals
from  the  system  board.   ON_B  is high when the Organiser is off, and is
pulled low by  the  control  IC  to  switch  the  system  on.   PACON_B  is
controlled  directly  by  software from the processor port 6, and is pulled
low to switch the slot rails on.  The main operating states are  summarised
in the following table :-

       ON_B     PACON_B         VCC1    VCC2    V_LCD   SVCC    SVPP
----------------------------------------------------------------------

  1    high      high           3-5     off     off     off     off
  2    low       high           5       5       -3-+1   off     off
  3    low       low            5       5       -3-+1   5       4.5
  4    low       low            5       5       -3-+1   5       21
----------------------------------------------------------------------


     In state 1, only the VCC1 rail is active, and total system load on the
supply  rail is typically 40 microamp, made up of 30 microamp load from the
system board and 10 microamp quiescent current in  the  power  supply  (i.e.
power  required  by  the  power  supply  itself  in  order  to  perform its
functions.).

     In state 2, VCC1,VCC2 and V_LCD are active with VCC1  and  VCC2  fully
regulated.   In  this state, total system power consumption is dependent on
the processor operating mode.  If the processor is fully active and running
code,  overall power consumption is typically 25 mA.  When the processor is
in sleep mode, total power consumption is reduced to typically 4 mA.

     In state 3, all rails are active with SVCC regulated to 5  volts,  and
SVPP  at 4.5 volts.  Power consumption is dependent on the external devices
plugged in,  but  without  any  devices  present  it  is  typically  25  mA
internally since the processor is normally fully active in this state.  The
power levels of each device type are listed in the relevant sections of the
manual.

     In state 4, the SVPP rail is raised to 21 volts.  This  is  a  special
case  and  only  occurs  when  programming  datapacks,  in  a  pulsed  mode
controlled by the PULSE,READY,ALARM and OE_B signals.



     ____________
3.3  SUPPLY RAILS

     VB is the main system supply rail from which  all  regulated  supplies
can  be derived.  This is available at the top slot VB pin, and hence power
input to this pin can supply the whole system.  This rail should  be  at  a
voltage  between  5.5  and  11  volts  for  proper  system  operation, when
supplying up to 200 mA peak system loads.

     The battery supplies the VB rail via the forward diode D1.  Where loss
of  voltage  across  this  diode  would affect system performance, a direct
connection to the relevant regulators is also made (TR6 and TR10).

     The PP3 battery should be of a type with a low internal resistance  so
that  it  can  supply  peak  system  loads  of 200 milliamp.  Two types are
commonly used :-

      -  The long-life alkaline type is not rechargeable and has a  typical
         capacity of 400-500 mAh (milli-amp hours).

      -  The nickel-cadmium type is rechargeable and has a typical capacity
         of 100 mAh between charges.


     For both types, a new battery will give an off-load voltage of  up  to
10.5  volts,  decreasing  through  its  life  to  the minimum system supply
voltage of 5.5 volts.



     _______ _________
3.4  STANDBY REGULATOR

     The Standby regulator supplies power to the VCC1 rail  when  the  main
system  regulators  are  shut down (i.e.  with ON_B high).  In this mode the
System board drains typically 30  microamp  to  keep  the  real-time  clock
running  and  to  retain  data.   The  VCC1 voltage in this state should be
between 3 and 5  volts,  and  current  consumption  reduces  with  reducing
voltage.

     The standby regulator is formed from TR1,TR2,TR3,R2,R3, and  R4.   TR3
is  a  pass transistor supplying current to VCC1 from the VB rail.  TR1 and
TR3 are configured as a darlington pair, with base  current  supplied  from
R2.   Without  any feedback this circuit would hold the VCC1 voltage at 1.2
volts (two VB-E drops) below the VB rail.  Feedback is implemented  through
TR2,  which switches on with approx.  5 volts on the base of TR3.  TR2 robs
base current from TR1 and the circuit settles in this state,  holding  VCC1
at nominally 4.5 volts.

     The circuit is not a good regulator since it relies on  the  TR2  VB-E
drop  as  its  feedback  reference.  Furthermore, its current capability is
dependent on the VB voltage, since this defines the base current  available
through  R2.   When  VB is lower than 6 volts, the VCC1 standby voltage may
fall below its nominal value to compensate.  These effects  are  not  large
enough to take it outside the 3-5 volt operating range.

     The circuit has a low quiescent current, so that it is itself draining
the minimum of power from the supply.  Under worst case conditions, with VB
at 11 volts, the current drawn  by  the  regulator  would  be  approx.   10
microamp,  split  equally  between  the  R3,R4  divider chain and collector
current through TR2.

     The C3 capacitor decouples  VCC1,  and  when  the  supply  is  removed
supports  the  VCC1  rail  until the supply is re-connected.  The capacitor
will hold VCC1 above 3 volts for 2-3 minutes in this case, but only if  the
circuit is in standby mode during this time (i.e.  Organiser off).



     ___________________
3.5  VCC1/VCC2 REGULATOR

     To switch the system into active mode, the control IC  on  the  System
board  pulls  the  ON_B signal low.  When this happens, TR15 is switched on
through its base resistor R23, and the VCC2 rail is powered on to a voltage
of  VCC1  minus 0.2 volts (TR15 VC-E drop).  VCC2 powers the main regulator
op-amp (OPA1) and the regulator  voltage  reference  (RD1),  and  the  main
VCC1/VCC2  regulator  is  switched on.  In turn, this now supplies the VCC1
rail and regulates it to 5 volts +/- 5 percent.  While the  main  regulator
is  being  activated,  the  VCC1 and VCC2 rails are supported by C3 and the
standby regulator.  In active  mode,  the  current  demand  from  the  main
regulator is built up from three elements :-

     1.  The System board requires up to 25 milliamp  from  VCC1  when  the
         processor is fully active.

     2.  The LCD drivers on the system board take approx.  1 milliamp  from
         the VCC2 rail (supplied from VCC1 via TR15).

     3.  The regulator op-amp and reference source take approx.  1  milliamp
         from  the  VCC2  rail.   (this  is  effectively  the  power supply
         quiescent current when in active mode).


     The LM324 op-amp is  a  quad  device  having  four  individual  op-amp
circuits.   These  are  used  in  various ways in the circuit.  The voltage
reference diode (type 9491BJ) is a temperature-compensated  bandgap  device
with  a  voltage  of 1.22 volts +/- 2 percent.  This voltage is used in all
regulators as a feedback reference.

     The VCC1/VCC2 regulator is formed  from  R5,R6,R7,R18,TR5,TR6,TR4  and
the  op-amp  pins 8,9,10.  TR5 and TR6 are PNP pass transistors arranged in
tandem, to supply the VCC1 rail from either VB or directly from VBAT.   PNP
transistors  are  used  to  minimise the regulator drop-out voltage (i.e.  a
VB-E drop is not lost as with NPN pass elements).  The  tandem  arrangement
is  so  that  the  drop across D1 is not lost when the battery is the power
source.  The regulator will operate from whichever is the higher of VB  and
VBAT.   The  divider  chain  R5,R18,R6  monitors  the  VCC1 voltage, and is
arranged so that 1.22 volts is present at the op-amp input when VCC1  is  5
volts.   The  op-amp compares this to the reference voltage, and its output
controls the pass transistors via TR4.  R7 limits the pass transistor  base
current.   If  VCC1  is lower than 5 volts, then TR4 is switched on to draw
more current through the pass transistor.  Conversely, if  VCC1  is  higher
than  5  volts, TR4 is switched off.  In practice, the circuit settles at a
VCC1 of 5 volts supplying a current equal to the demand.

     The regulator functions down to  a  supply  voltage  of  approx.   5.3
volts.   Below this the VCC1 rail will follow the supply voltage at approx.
0.3 volt below it.  In this case TR4 will be switched hard  on,  since  the
op-amp  input  from  the divider chain will be below the reference voltage.
At a point where VCC1 is approx.  2 percent  below  its  nominal  regulated
voltage,  the  op-amp  section  pins 12,13,14 will switch to set the LOWBAT
signal high to the System board.



     ______________
3.6  SVCC REGULATOR

     The SVCC rail is used to supply external devices in the  three  slots.
It  is switched on and off by the PACON_B signal from the system board, and
when on, regulates to 5 volts +/- 5 percent.  It  also  supplies  the  SVPP
rail  through  a  forward diode.  The load on the regulator is dependent on
devices plugged in.  Maximum load is 170 mA, set essentially by the  rating
of  the pass transistors, which is 1 watt.  For a worst case supply voltage
of 11 volts and an output voltage of 5 volts, this rating is met  when  170
mA is drawn.

     The regulator design is similar to the VCC1/VCC2 regulator above.  TR9
and  TR10  are  PNP pass transistors from the VB and VBAT rails.  R8 and R9
form the feedback divider chain to the op-amp pin 6, and  are  compared  to
the  reference  voltage.   TR7  controls  the  pass  transistors, with base
current being limited by R10.

     The PACON_B signal switches the regulator on and off.  When PACON_B is
high,  TR8  is switched off and base current from the regulator is blocked.
Note that in this state TR7 will be hard on since SVCC is  below  5  volts,
but  nevertheless  no  base  current  is available to the pass transistors.
When PACON_B is low, TR8 is switched on and the regulator can operate.   If
there  is  no  load, (i.e.  no devices are plugged in) then the base current
through the pass transistors will be minimal, and so the quiescent  current
of this regulator is negligible.



     _____
3.7  V_LCD

     V_LCD is the negative rail used by  the  LCD  drivers  on  the  System
board.   It is adjusted by the thumbwheel variable resistor to set contrast
on the display.  Current consumption is 100-300 microamp dependent  on  the
voltage set, between +1.2 and -3 volts.

     V_LCD is generated directly from the OSC signal from the system board.
When  the Organiser is on, this gives a 1024 Hz square wave signal from the
control IC.  R20 and the VR1 variable resistor limit the current, and  then
drive  the series capacitor C8.  When OSC is high, charge is pushed from C8
and is drained to ground through the forward diode of D3.   When  OSC  goes
low,  charge  is pulled to C8 making the C8/D3 track negative.  The reverse
diode of D3 transfers charge from the storage capacitor C1.  With no  load,
the voltage at C1 would be the inverse of the OSC voltage less the D3 diode
drop.  Note that the maximum positive voltage on the  V_LCD  rail  will  be
+1.2 volts, since it is tied to ground through the two diode drops of D3.

     This form of voltage inverter is not precise and can only supply a low
current.   In  this  application,  however,  the circuit is adjusted by the
operator, and the voltage set is not important  as  long  as  the  contrast
range is sufficient.



     ____________
3.8  VOLTAGE PUMP

     The voltage pump is used by the  system  when  programming  datapacks.
Two  stages are required to transfer the voltage required to the SVCC rail.
Firstly the pump is used to charge up a  storage  capacitor  to  35  volts.
This  is  then  regulated  to  21 volts and switched to the SVCC rail under
program control.  The storage capacitor contains enough charge to programme
an Eprom byte.  This sequence is repeated for each byte to be programmed.

     The voltage pump is formed from  TR11,TR12,R16,R17,L1,D5,ZN1  and  C6.
The inductor L1 is the energy transfer element and C6 is the charge storage
capacitor.  Pumping is controlled by  the  PULSE  signal  from  the  System
board,  and  the  zener  diode  ZN1  provides  feedback to the processor by
setting the READY line high when C6 is charged sufficiently  for  the  next
byte programming operation.

     In steady-state conditions (before pump  operation),  the  PULSE  line
will  be low, with the darlington pair TR11 and TR12 switched off.  C6 will
be charged to the VB voltage, less a diode drop across D5.  The READY  line
will  be  low  since  C6 is well below the 35 volt switching voltage.  Note
also that TR14 should be off (i.e.  the 21 volt regulator  is  not  switched
on) and so their is no load on the C6 rail.

     To operate the pump, the processor enables the PULSE signal  from  the
control  IC.   PULSE  then oscillates at 32768 Hz frequency.  When PULSE is
high, TR11 and TR12 are switched on, with TR12 in saturation  bringing  its
collector  voltage to 0.3 volts.  Current is now drawn through the inductor
to  the  V=L dI/dt  law,  (where  V  is  the  voltage  across  the  inductor
VB-Vcollector,  L is the 1 mH inductance and t is the time from Pulse being
set high.).  After 15 microsec, PULSE goes low and TR12  is  switched  off.
Current  continues to flow through the inductor, raising the voltage at the
TR12 collector until it can flow  through  the  forward  diode  D5  to  the
storage capacitor C6.  The inductor now discharges into the capacitor under
its V=L dI/dt law (where V is now  the  reverse  voltage  between  the  TR12
collector  and  VB,  set by the current C6 voltage plus the D5 diode drop).
This process is repeated on every  cycle  of  PULSE,  and  the  C6  voltage
steadily  rises.   When C6 reaches the zener voltage of 33 volts, it starts
to pull the READY line up, and this will be seen as high by  the  processor
when  a further 2 volts are added.  (During this sequence the ready line is
pulled low by the 47k resistor from the ACOUT signal on the  System  board,
so  leakage  through  the  zener  is  drained).  On reading ready high, the
processor should disable PULSE and can proceed with programming a  datapack
byte.



     ______________
3.9  SVPP REGULATOR

     The SVPP regulator is  used  to  regulate  the  C6  storage  capacitor
voltage to 21 volts and to switch this onto the SVPP rail to the slots.  It
is only used during  datapack  programming  and  in  conjunction  with  the
voltage pump above.

     The regulator is  formed  from  TR13,TR14,R11,R12,R13,R14,D4  and  the
op-amp section pins 1,2 and 3.  In operation it is similar to the VCC1/VCC2
regulator, with the divider chain R11/R12 forming the feedback loop to  set
the  op-amp  input  at  1.22  volts when the SVPP rail is at 21 volts.  The
regulator is switched on and off by a combination of the PACON_B, OE_B  and
ALARM  signals  from  the  system board.  To switch on, PACON_B must be low
(i.e.  SVCC on), and both ALARM and OE_B must be high.  The software ensures
that  this  condition  only arises when the SVPP regulator is required, and
this imposes conditions on the  use  of  the  buzzer  when  the  slots  are
switched  on.   If  PACON_B  is  high,  base  current  from  the  TR14 pass
transistor is blocked by TR8.  If either ALARM or OE_B are  low,  then  the
base  of  TR13  is pulled low to switch it off irrespective of the state of
the op-amp output at pin1.  (When the Organiser is on, the op-amp output is
normally  high  since  SVPP  is  normally lower than the 21 volt regulating
voltage.)

     When the regulator is switched  on,  it  draws  current  from  the  C6
storage  capacitor,  and  the  voltage at C6 falls as it loses charge.  The
capacitor has sufficient charge to  maintain  21  volts  at  the  regulator
output  for  50  msec  under a SVPP load of 50 milliamp.  The software must
limit switch-on time to this maximum, switch off the regulator and  re-pump
the  capacitor  if it requires any further datapack bytes to be programmed.
The SVPP rail can be in one of three states :-

      -  OV if the PACON_B is high and the slots are switched off

      -  4.5 volts when PACON_B is low, fed by the forward  diode  D2  from
         the SVCC rail

      -  21 volts when the SVPP regulator is switched on.



      ________________
3.10  REMOTE SWITCH ON

     The AC_B signal from the top slot can be used to switch the  Organiser
on.  The AC_B line is pulled high to VCC1 by the internal 47k resistor R24.
If an external device pulls this input low, then TR16 is switched  on,  and
the  AC signal to the system board goes high to switch the system on.  Note
that this will only happen if the ON_B signal to the  emitter  of  TR16  is
high  (i.e.   Organiser  off).   As soon as ON_B goes low, the AC_B input is
disconnected an has no effect.



      ______
3.11  BUZZER

     The piezoelectric buzzer element is driven from  the  ALARM  signal,
through the 1k resistor R15.