Jaap's Mechanical Calculators Page

Marchant

Marchant XL Marchant ACT-10M


Marchant XL
   Videos
Marchant ACT-10M
   Videos
The History of Marchant Calculating Machines
Manuals
Advertisements and sales leaflets
Newspaper and Magazine Advertisements
Newspaper and Magazine Articles
Patents
Links


Marchant XL

The Marchant XL has a moving carriage with an 18-digit register, and in the main body of the machine a 9-digit revolution counter to the right of a set of 9 input levers. It looks similar to a pinwheel machine, and is used in the same way. Internally it uses a different mechanism however, as evidenced by the fact that the input levers stay in place when the crank is rotated.

Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL


Pushing the small lever on the front to the left or right will shift the carriage one in that direction, or the carriage can be moved a longer distance by using the grips at the left of the carriage. The counter at the top right has a pointer indicating the currently active digit, and this moves whenever the carriage moves. The switch located between the counter and the input selects whether the counter counts additions of subtractions, for use in multiplications and divisions respectively. The counter and the main register both have a small crank that you can turn to reset them. The input can be cleared by pushing the bar upwards, which pushes all the input pins up to zero.

Internally the XL uses an "adaptive segment" mechanism. Whereas a pinwheel is a gear with teeth that extend or retract when the input is set, and stay in that state when the crank is turned, the Marchant XL has wheels in which a whole segment with 9 teeth retracts at just the right moment during the rotation of the crank so that it effectively acts as if it had fewer teeth.

Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL
Marchant XL


This XL is in reasonably good condition. The input pin for the units has broken off, so it is a bit difficult to use, and the units digit therefore also won't be cleared by the bar. Other than this, it only has some minor cosmetic blemishes. This model was made from 1923 till about 1935. It has serial number XL100215, and as this is higher than any other I have found online, it must be one of the last ones made. Note that the toothed segments in this machine are hinged so they rotate when retracting instead of sliding directly inwards. This improvement was patented in 1930. The serial numbers seem to start at 90000, so it seems that a little over 10,000 of them were made.


Videos

Here is a video where I demonstrate the Marchant XL.


This video shows the internal mechanism in action.




Marchant ACT-10M

The Marchant ACT-10M uses the proportional gear mechanism, also known as the "Silent Speed", which was introduced by Harold Avery in 1934. It has a moving carriage with a 20 digit register and an 11 digit counter. It has a full keyboard with 10 columns and an input display register. All the control keys and switches are to the right of the keyboard.

Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M


The machine is driven by a 110 Volt electric motor. The power lead has a so-called "oval" three-hole connector, a type which is apparently designated PH163, and made by Belden.

This ACT-10M is in reasonably good condition, with only some minor cosmetic blemishes. It is fully working, though it took me a lot of effort to lubricate and work loose the carriage tabulation mechanism and some of the register wheels which had seized up. This model was made from about 1942 till 1948, when the design was modernised. It has serial number 283,020, which means it was one of the last ones made.

Here is a quick overview of what the keys and switches do:

White/green number keysEnter a digit in the input register
Keyboard DialClears the input from the keyboard
+ and -Adds/subtracts input to/from register, and clears input
Black arrow keysMove the carriage in the direction of the arrow
Middle dial keyClears main register
Upper dial keyClears counter register
Black number keysMultiplier keys. Adds multiple of input to the register, and optionally shifts carriage. Input is not cleared. It can be combined with a simultaneous + or - key press to add/subtract a multiple and clear the input
Green arrow keys / Non shiftSets carriage direction when using multiplier keys
Red number keysTab keys. Shifts carriage to selected position
Tab clearReturns carriage to previously selected tab position, if any
ReverseSwitches addition/subtraction for next operation. Allows multiplier keys to subtract a multiple without clearing the keyboard
Auto ÷Clear counter and start automatic division
StopAbort automatic division prematurely (e.g. diviison by 0)
Red switchSelects automatic clear-return, i.e. after division ends, register and input are automatically cleared carriage returned to selected tab
Black switchReverse counter direction
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M
Marchant ACT-10M


Internally the ACT-10M uses the proportional gear or "Silent Speed" mechanism. This combines several clever techniques.

The register uses a planetary gear differential at each digit to allow a number wheel to be driven from two inputs added together - carry from the number wheel to its right, and the input from the keyboard. Note that Burroughs calculators have this too. What is unusual is that the gearing to the adjacent wheel is permanently engaged. This means that carries are not triggered, but successive wheels are connected by a 10:1 gear ratio. This idea was not actually new, as Pafnuty Chebyshev built an adding machine with these principles in 1878.

The problem with this permanent gearing is that if for example the 25 were displayed, the tens wheel would be halfway between 2 and 3. To keep each number wheel centred on a whole number when displaying the result, the Marchant machines had an additional cam gear to offset them correctly. This offset only gets applied when no calculation is occurring. When a calculation starts the register becomes disengaged from this offset mechanism and engaged with the main actuating mechanism so that the calculation can be done smoothly.

The actuating mechanism for each column in the keyboard acts essentially as a 9-speed transmission, so that when a 9 is selected, this will drive the number wheel 9 times as fast as when a 1 is selected in a column. This smooth continuous direct transmission during the calculation allowed these machines to be much faster than any other calculators.


Videos

Here is a video where I demonstrate the main functions of the Marchant ACT-10M.


In this video I show some more uses of the Stop button.


This is a slow motion video of the Marchant ACT-10M doing a division.




The History of Marchant Calculating Machines

The Marchant Calculating Machine Co. was founded in 1911 by the brothers Rodney and Alfred Marchant. They were based in Oakland, California. At first they made an Odhner-type pinwheel machine, the Standard, which came in two register sizes. In 1915 an electrically driven version was made, too. In 1917, they released a new model called the Pony which was about 20% smaller in size and lighter than the Standard. Due to patent challenges they had to develop a different mechanism, and in 1921 the engineer Carl Friden came up with the adapting segment design. Apparently the Pony was then changed to use that mechanism, though I have not been able to confirm that.

This adapting segment mechanism was subsequently used in the models XL and XLA, released in 1923. See the model XL above for more details of this mechanism. While the XLA still had the register and counter on the moving carriage, looking very similar to the previous Odhner type models, the XL had the counter in a fixed position to the right of the input. Many models and variations were made based on the XL - usually with a full keyboard instead of setting levers, and often with electric drive. In the early 1930s the depression forced them to reduce the number of models and variants from 40 to just 2, one of which was the XL. Carl Friden left in about 1930 to found his own rival calculator company in San Leandro.

A new mechanism was designed by Harold Avery. The first machines based on this mechanism were released in 1934, and called "Silent Speed". See the model ACT10M above for more details of the mechanism. After the war, improved versions were called "Figuremaster" or "Figurematic", and later "Transflo". Marchant continued to produce models using only this mechanism until the 1960s.

In 1958, Marchant was bought by the typewriter company Smith Corona, to form SCM. While they did move into electronic desk calculators, they could not compete against electronic pocket calculators, so stopped making calculators in the early 1970s.


Models

Marchant made only a few models of pinwheel machines. The exact years of manufacture are somewhat uncertain.

Pinwheel machines
ModelYearSize
Marchant1911-19139×8×13Imported and rebranded Dactyle machines
Standard A1913-1920?9×8×13
Standard B1913-1920?9×10×18
Pony A1917-19229×8×13Also Pony Special A with input display register
Pony B1917-19229×10×18Also Pony Special B with input display register

Apparently in the last year or so the Pony was redesigned to use the adapting segment mechanism. This mechanism was then the basis for a large number of new models. Below is a table listing most of these models. Only the XLA/XLB and XL use input pins, all the rest have a keyboard. There were also several models not included in the table that have a name with a K (such as KA, KB, KC, KE, KR) but I do not have the details of those.

Adapting segment machines
ModelYearSizesFeatures
XLA / XLB1923-19309×9×13Manual, input pins, counter in carriage
XL 1923-19359×9×18Manual, input pins
H 1923- 6×6×12, 8×8×16Manual
EA 1923-19266×6×12, 9×9×18, 10×9×18Electric drive, muliplier row
ER 1925-19348×8×16, 9×9×18, 10×9×18Electric drive, semi-automatic division
EB 1926-19336×6×12, 9×9×18Electric drive, Electric clearing, semi-automatic division, muliplier row
ERB1926-19346×6×12, 8×8×16, 9×9×18, 10×9×18Electric drive, Electric clearing, semi-automatic division
EC 1927 9×9×18Electric drive, Electric carriage, Electric clearing, semi-automatic division, muliplier row
ED 1927 9×9×18Electric drive, Electric clearing, semi-automatic division, muliplier row
ES 1928-19308×8×16, 10×?×?Electric drive
EE 1928-19299×9×18Electric drive, Electric clearing, automatic division, muliplier row
EER1928-19349×9×18, 10×9×18Electric drive, Electric clearing, automatic division
EEG1929 9×9×18, 10×9×18Electric drive, Electric carriage, Electric clearing, automatic division, muliplier row, automatic counter control
EBG1929-19306×6×12, 9×9×18, 10×9×18Electric drive, Electric carriage, Electric clearing, semi-automatic division, muliplier row
ERG1931 6×6×12, 8×8×16, 9×9×18, 10×9×18Electric drive, Electric carriage, Electric clearing, automatic division, automatic counter control
AG 1930 9×9×18, 10×9×18Electric drive, Electric carriage, Electric clearing, muliplier row
DRB1930-19346×6×12, 7×8×15, 8×8×16, 10×9×20Electric drive, Electric clearing, extra register
DRG1931-193210×9×20Electric drive, Electric carriage, Electric clearing, automatic division, extra register
DEG1931-193610×9×20Electric drive, Electric carriage, Electric clearing, automatic division, muliplier row, extra register

In the first generation of proportional gear calculators there were relatively few different models. Most were available with an 8-column or with a 10-column keyboard, indicated by the number in the model name (denoted by x in the names below).

Proportional gear machines
Silent Speed
ModelYearRemarks
xD 1934-1943Automatic Division
xM 1935-1940As D but with multiplier keys
CT-xD 1939-1939As D but with Carriage Tabulation
CT-xM 1938-1941As M but with Carriage Tabulation key row
CR-xM 1941-1941As M but with Carriage Tabulation buttons on carriage
ACR-xD1942-1948As CR but with automatic carriage clear and return
ACR-xM1941-1948As CR but with automatic carriage clear and return. Mostly 8 column
ACT-xM1942-1948As CT but with automatic carriage clear and return. Mostly 10 column

In 1948 the calculators were redesigned, getting a more modern streamlined case. The number of variant models exploded, and I have not found any good overview of the differences between them all. Generally the Figurematic models had multiplier keys, the Figuremaster models had multiplier keys and carriage tabulation keys, while the semi-automatic models had neither.

Proportional gear machines
Figuremaster / Figurematic / Semi-automatic
Figuremaster FA 1948-1950
SD 1948-1951
Figuremaster AFA 1949-1957
Figurematic DX 1949-1958?Bar Type
Figurematic SDX 1950-1952
Figuremaster EFA 1950-1960
TD 1950-1959 Bar Type
TDR 1951
Figuremaster ABFA1952-1959
Figurematic DRX 1952-1954
Figurematic SDRX 1952
DR 1952-1953
Figurematic ADX 1953-1963
DE 1954-1959 Bar Type
Figuremaster SKA 1955-1964 Decimagic
Figurematic RX 1955-1958?
Figurematic CXX 1956
DCR 1957-1959 Bar Type
Figuremaster TR 1958-1967 Transflo
Figuremaster TRFA1959 Transflo

Manuals

Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators    (PDF, 18.2 MB or archive.org)
Marchant Calculating Machine Company; Oakland, California, U.S.A.
1940
38 page stapled book
154mm × 228mm

This is the standard manual for Marchant's Silent Speed calculators, which at this point were the models xD, xM, CT-xD, and CT-xM (where x is 8 or 10).

Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators


Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators    (PDF, 18.0 MB or archive.org)
Marchant Calculating Machine Company; Oakland, California, U.S.A.
1946
40 page stapled book
154mm × 228mm

This is a slightly later edition of the standard manual for Marchant's Silent Speed calculators. It has no copyright year, but the code inside the rear cover suggests it was printed in 1946. The models are the ACR-xD, ACR-xM, and ACT-xM (where x is 8 or 10).

1946 Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
1946 Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
1946 Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
1946 Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
1946 Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
1946 Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
1946 Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators
1946 Operating Instructions Marchant Calculators


Simple Instructions for the easy operation of your Marchant Figurematic Calculator Model ADX    (PDF, 3.79 MB or archive.org)
Marchant Calculators, Inc.
1953
8 page booklet
150mm × 224mm

This is a shortened manual for Marchant model ADX calculator.

Simple Instructions for the easy operation of your Marchant Figurematic Calculator
Simple Instructions for the easy operation of your Marchant Figurematic Calculator
Simple Instructions for the easy operation of your Marchant Figurematic Calculator


Operating Instructions for the Marchant Figurematic Model ADX    (PDF, 9.31 MB or archive.org)
Marchant Calculators, Inc.
1956
24 page booklet
151mm × 228mm

This is the standard manual for Marchant model ADX calculator.

Operating Instructions for the Marchant Figurematic
Operating Instructions for the Marchant Figurematic
Operating Instructions for the Marchant Figurematic
Operating Instructions for the Marchant Figurematic
Operating Instructions for the Marchant Figurematic
Operating Instructions for the Marchant Figurematic


Instrucciones Sencillas para el Fácil Manejo de las Calculadoras Marchant    (PDF, 1.85 MB or archive.org)
Marchant Calculating Machine Company; Oakland, California, U.S.A.
1947
12 page booklet
99mm × 172mm

This is a small Spanish manual for Marchant's Silent Speed calculator.

calculadoras1
calculadoras2
calculadoras3
calculadoras4


Marchant Rekenmachine Handleiding en rekenvoorbeelden voor het volautomatische model ADX    (PDF, 6.50 MB or archive.org)
Veenman kantoormachines n.v.
1955?
20 page booklet
155mm × 227mm

This is a Dutch manual for Marchant model ADX calculator.

Marchant Rekenmachine
Marchant Rekenmachine
Marchant Rekenmachine
Marchant Rekenmachine
Marchant Rekenmachine
Marchant Rekenmachine


Marchant Methods    (PDF, 35.4 MB or archive.org)
Marchant Calculating Machine Company; Oakland, California, U.S.A.
1939-1958
44 loose or stapled sheets, 88 pages
218mm × 280mm × 5mm

This is a collection of 25 issues of Marchant Methods, which describe methods for performing mathematical calculations on a mechanical calculator. The first 8 were printed in the early 1940s, the rest have no dates but were probably printed in the early 1950s (they have a Figuremaster/Figurematic letterhead), except for one which is from 1958 (after Marchant became part of Smith-Corona-Marchant)

NumberDatePagesTitle
521939-021Straight-Line Interpolations
911942-021Inverse Straight-Line Interpolation - Direct Method
921939-081Inverse or Direct Straight Line Interpolation - Build-Up Method
1521941-024Curvilinear Interpolation By The Method Of Constant Second Differences
189b1942-021Direct Interpolation and Sub-Tabulation
2451943-041Hansen-Ahlberg Method For Obtaining Parabolic Trends
434B119418A Short Method For Evaluating Determinants And Solving Systems Of Linear Equations
434B219414Notes On Use Of The Marchant Calculator For Solution Of Simultaneous Equations
434D6The Birge-Vieta Method of Finding Real Roots Of Rational Integral Function
434F4Approximating Polynomial From Difference Array (Stirling Method)
434J5Nogrady Method For Solution Of Cubic Equations
437E24Starting Values For Milne-Method Integration Of Ordinary Differential Equations Of First Order
439D3Curvilinear Interpolation By Lagrangean Coefficients
439E31Direct Interpolation and Sub-Tabulation
439J25Inverse Curvilinear Interpolation By "Divided Differences"
439K4The A. C. Aitken Method Of Curvilinear Interpolation With Equal Or Unequal Intervals Of The Argument
441A11Summations Of X, Y, X², Y² and 2XY Two-Digit Amounts
441A21Summations Of X, Y, X², Y² and XY
441A31Summations Of X, X², and XY, Or Y, Y² and XY Two-Digit Amounts
441B2Summations Of X², and (UX²), or X³
441C2Outline Of Summation - Work For Linear Multiple Correlation
441D1Summations Of X, XY and XY²
4421Summation Of Factors Of The Type Of AB/K When A, B, and K Are Variable
445A5Statistical Method Mean And Stadard Deviation - Data Grouped By Equal Class Intervals
4462Statistical Method Linear "Least Squares" Line Of Regression And Coefficient Of Regression
Marchant Methods
Marchant Methods
Marchant Methods
Marchant Methods
Marchant Methods



Advertisements and sales leaflets


Below are descriptions and photos of my collection of promotional material about the Marchant machines.
If you are interested in adverts from newspapers and magazines, my Marchant Advertisements page has a huge collection of scans of adverts from 1912 to the 1970s that I found in online archives. There is also a separate page with Marchant Articles from newspapers, books and magazines.

Marchant Postcard
Genuine Curteich, Chicago
1939
139mm × 90 mm

Postcard illustrating the Marchant Calculating Machine Company Exhibit at the 1939 World's Fair held in New York.

Marchant Postcard
Marchant Postcard
Marchant Postcard
Marchant Postcard


Silent Speed Leaflet
Marchant Calculating Machine Company, Caliornia
1947
93mm × 208mm

Leaflet advertising the Marchant Silent Speed Calculator.

Marchant Leaflet
Marchant Leaflet
Marchant Leaflet
Marchant Leaflet
Marchant Leaflet


Veenman's Brochure    (PDF, 2.05 MB or archive.org)
Veenman's K.I.B., Rotterdam
1947
8 page booklet
148mm × 213mm

This is a small brochure for Veenman's K.I.B., a Dutch company supplying office equipment. It includes Marchant Figurematic and Figuremaster calculators, next to various other machines such as dictaphones and copiers.

veenman1
veenman2
veenman3
veenman4
veenman5


Marchant Figuremaster
Kantoormachine-bedrijf Portelange N. V., Kunstlaan 36, Brussel
1950s
One page flyer
203mm × 272mm

A flyer for the Figuremaster in the Dutch language.

Marchant Figuremaster Ad
Marchant Figuremaster Ad


Marchant Postcard
Continental Büromaschinen GmbH., Kochstr. 60, Berlin SW68
1950s
145mm × 90 mm

German postcard promoting a new variant of the Figurematic.

German Marchant postcard
German Marchant postcard


Marchant Ruler and Calendar
Marchant Calculators, Division of Smith-Corona Marchant Inc.
1959
148mm × 213mm

This is a small celluloid plastic ruler with green printing. One side depicts the Marchant factory and a 6-inch ruler, and the reverse has a calendar for the year 1959. It also has the name ED McSwain of Vancouver, who was presumably a representative or reseller of Marchant calculators.

Marchant Ruler
Marchant Ruler



Patents

Here is only a small selection of the patents that were filed for Marchant calculators.

Pinwheel
PatentFiling datePublish dateNameDescription
US 994,4141911-02-231911-06-11Rodney H. MarchantStandard carriage lock and crank handle
US 1,115,9501914-04-021914-11-03Rodney H. MarchantElectric drive
US 1,172,8171914-11-131916-02-22Rodney H. MarchantCarriage shift buttons
 
Adapting Segment
PatentFiling datePublish dateNameDescription
US 1,476,1971921-01-171923-12-04Carl M. Friden Adapting segment mechanism.
See also AT 102,775 B, CA 239,984, CH 98,111, DE 393,953 C, DK 31,824 C, FI 9,297.
US 1,476,1981921-11-231923-12-04Carl M. Friden Transfer timings.
See also CA248977.
US 1,524,9241923-07-171925-02-03Carl M. F. Friden Adapting segment mechanism with keyboard.
See also CA247239.
US 1,634,9901924-10-081927-07-05Carl M. F. Friden Lock input when crank turned.
See also DE436212C, FR605270, GB241177.
US 1,643,7101924-02-181927-09-27Carl M. F. Friden Calculator with keyboard and electric drive.
See also AT107672B, DE450415C, DK35917C, FI12372.
US 1,651,8821925-10-251927-12-06Carl M. F. Friden Electric drive.
See also CA274666.
US 1,682,9011926-04-131928-09-04Carl M. F. Friden Reversal mechanism.
See also CA272415.
US 1,818,5481924-08-191931-08-11Carl M. F. Friden Lock input when crank turned
US 1,849,3491925-06-271932-03-15Carl M. F. Friden Electric drive improvement
US 1,858,3971926-06-011932-05-17Carl M. F. FridenElectric drive
US 1,867,6031930-10-131932-07-19Carl M. F. Friden Carry mechanism.
See also CA332510, CH158871, FR723195.
US 1,890,7761928-09-011932-12-13Carl M. F. FridenMultiplier keys
US 1,910,7381927-06-181933-05-23Harold T. AveryClear counter for division
US 1,913,6301926-04-131933-06-13Carl M. F. FridenReverse drive mechanism
US 1,913,6301926-08-311933-06-13Carl M. F. Friden Reversal mechanism.
US 1,927,2691930-05-101933-09-19Gustav Lerch Lock drive when clearing register
US 1,928,1251929-05-201933-09-26Carl M. F. Friden Transfer mechanism with rounding.
See also CA319671, CH150651, DE574486C, FR696493.
US 1,935,8511927-10-261933-11-21Gustave Lerch Electric drive switches
US 1,935,8511927-10-261933-11-21Gustave LerchMotor switch
US 1,936,9031927-06-231933-11-28Carl M. F. FridenPrinting mechanism, keyboard
US 1,946,9421931-03-091934-02-13Gustav Lerch Lock input when crank turned
US 1,949,7401928-04-241934-03-06Carl M. F. FridenSubtraction through intermediate gears
US 1,969,2621931-11-101934-08-07Carl M. F. FridenEnter constants by single key
US 1,981,2261923-12-101934-11-20Carl M. F. FridenDivision
US 1,993,8341930-05-291935-03-12Carl M. F. Friden Adapting segment mechanism improvement
US 2,009,0101927-03-301935-07-23Carl M. F. FridenMotorised carriage shift
US 2,011,2741930-02-081935-08-13Carl M. F. Friden; Gustave LerchCarriage interlock
US 2,014,0131931-07-151935-09-10Harold T. Avery; Gustave LerchComplementary quotients
US 2,022,1031929-11-061935-11-26Harold T. Avery; Gustave LerchMultiplier carriage shift
US 2,028,5401922-02-271936-01-21Carl M. F. Friden Calculating machine, with keyboard.
See also AT106556B, CA259720, CH105276, CH113767, DE408641C, DK33191C, FI9828.
US 2,117,6201931-11-131938-05-17Walter E. MathiPowered control keys
US 2,142,8921928-02-061939-01-03Carl M. F. FridenShortcut division
US 2,148,7601932-06-281939-02-28Gustave LerchPowered controls, clutch
US 2,152,1991933-01-231939-03-28Anthony B. MachadoPowered controls
US 2,157,4111931-05-081939-05-09George W. HopkinsAdding machine and calculator
US 2,200,5881926-10-251940-05-14Harold T. AveryAutomatic Division
US 2,211,2251931-12-071940-08-13Harold T. AveryDivision with comparator
US 2,216,6361931-09-261940-10-01Wells A. WebbCarriage tabulation
US 2,256,7991931-07-151941-09-23Harold T. AveryInterlock Add and Division keys
US 2,302,9321934-05-261942-11-24Harold T. AveryCarriage shift controls
US 2,335,2261930-09-261943-11-30Harold T. AveryReversing mechanism
 
Proportional gears
PatentFiling datePublish dateNameDescription
US 2,152,1711935-05-041939-03-28Harold T. AveryGovernor
US 2,162,2371936-11-271939-06-13Harold T. AveryElectrical control device
US 2,162,2381938-10-041939-06-13Harold T. Avery; Howard M. DustinClutch and power transmission
US 2,211,7361933-12-181940-08-13Harold T. AveryProportional gear mechanism
US 2,216,6591936-06-121940-10-01Harold T. AverySelective carriage shift
US 2,220,3061939-01-171940-11-05Lawrence E. Warner; Harold T. AveryGovernor
US 2,222,1641933-01-231940-11-19Harold T. AveryRegister and clearing mechanism
US 2,229,6301933-01-231941-01-28Harold T. AveryCalculator
US 2,253,7481935-09-231941-08-26Harold T. AveryElectric multiplier keys
US 2,255,9091936-10-071941-09-16Harold T. AveryKeyboard and control register
US 2,267,8901933-12-181941-12-30Harold T. AveryCounter actuating mechanism
US 2,270,5731940-04-121942-01-20Harold T. AveryCounter direction control
US 2,271,2401936-06-121942-01-27Harold T. AveryMultiplier key mechanism
US 2,291,1331933-12-181942-07-28Harold T. AveryCarriage tabulation (CR)
US 2,291,1341933-12-181942-07-28Harold T. AveryDivision stop button
US 2,294,9481940-04-291942-09-08Harold T. AveryCarriage tabulation (CT)
US 2,294,9491940-01-221942-09-08Harold T. AveryClearing mechanism
US 2,304,2311939-04-241942-12-08Harold T. AveryCarriage shifting mechanism
US 2,329,1801939-04-181943-09-14Lawrence E. BoydDecimal indicators
US 2,333,2341941-05-161943-11-02Robert E. BoydenSimplified clutch
US 2,335,2821940-07-061943-11-30Edgar B. Jessup; Harold T. AveryCarriage shift control
US 2,339,0891942-05-121944-01-11Marvin D. Martin; Kenneth A. SnellCentralizing device
US 2,343,2731938-07-201944-03-07Harold T. AveryElectromechanical calculator
US 2,365,3241938-06-111944-12-19Harold T. AveryTabulation mechanism (CT)
US 2,365,3251943-09-201944-12-19Harold T. AveryClutch mechanism
US 2,366,4291940-08-121945-01-02Harold T. AveryCarriage shift control mechanism
US 2,376,9541938-09-061945-05-29Harold T. AveryCarriage shift mechanism
US 2,377,0651940-11-251945-05-29Harold T. AveryProportional gear transmission
US 2,377,7671941-04-071945-06-05Howard M. Dustin; Harold T. AveryAuto clear register after division
US 2,393,0181942-07-291946-01-15Robert E. BoydenAutomatic counter reverse for division
US 2,393,0191942-07-291946-01-15Harold T. AveryAutomatic counter reverse for division
US 2,400,2441941-08-251946-05-14Walter E. MathiSimplified multiplier mechanism
US 2,416,3691940-08-021947-02-25Harold T. AveryElectromechanical calculator without carriage
US 2,428,2061941-08-041947-09-30Howard M. DustinCarriage tabulation (CR)
US 2,439,5551938-09-061948-04-13Harold T. AveryCarriage shift reversible transmission

Links

Marchant on Wikipedia
Oakland localwiki has information about Marchant's factory locations and what the buildings are currently used for.
John Wolff has a page with various Marchant models and an extensive breakdown of the Figurematic mechanism.
Rechner Lexikon has a page about the Marchant company, as well as pages for the Marchant XL and various other models.
Rechenmaschinen Illustrated has a page with pictures of Marchant machines
Cris Vande Velde has a Standard, a Pony, an XLA, two XL machines, some twinplex XL machines, an H9, and an EEG.
Vintage Calculators has a page about the Marchant company, with some serial number information for later models and examples of their final electronic calculators.
XNumber has an article by Ernie Jorgenson, a former employee, and two articles by Nicholas Bodley about Marchant and the Proportional gear mechanism.
The Marchant XL site with videos of how to use it.
Marchant Calculators site has some history but the other pages have no content.
Mechanisms by Tchebyshev has a page about his Arithmometer from 1878, which was the first to use a register with planetary differential gears and 10:1 gearing.


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