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Original-Odhner

Original-Odhner series 24



Original-Odhner, model 24
Videos
History
Models
Manuals
Articles and Advertisements
Patents
Links

Original-Odhner, model 24

The Original-Odhner 24 is a mechanical calculator with a pinwheel mechanism. It has 10 input levers for entering a 10-digit input. It has a carriage on which there is a main register with a large capacity of 20 digits, and a counter register with 11 digits. The counter has a carry mechanism. The input can be cleared by pushing a botton on the right which closes the input lever slots, after which you can turn the crank clockwise as far as it will go which causes the input pins to be pushed up, and then returning the crank to its resting position.

The choice of whether to increment or decrement the counter is selected automatically. After the counter is cleared, the first operation of the crank will increment the counter regardless of whether it is a subtraction or an addition, and this counter direction is then locked in for subsequent operations. The machine also has a back transfer mechanism, meaning that you can copy the value in the main register back into the input. If the input is clear, you can press the back transfer button on the right hand side of the carriage, and then clearing the main register performs the transfer.

This model does not have an input display register, but the model 25 does and is otherwise identical to this model 24.

Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24

The serial number is 24-244756, which dates the machine to about 1947.

Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24
Original-Odhner series 24


Videos

The first video shows how to use the machine, while the second describes the mechanism.






History

Willgodt Theophil Odhner created his first working prototype pinwheel calculator in 1875. More machines were hand-built over the next few years, but mass production only started in 1890 from his workshop in Saint Petersburg. As production expanded, he licensed Grimme Natalis & Co in Germany to produce them as well, and they sold them under the brand name Brunsviga from about 1892.

Willgodt died in 1905, and his son Alexander took over the business. The early machines were called Odhner's Arithmometer, but from about 1907 the name Original Odhner began being used in order to differentiate them from competitors. After the Russian revolution the company was nationalised, and the production machinery transported to Moscow. Alexander Odhner moved to Gothenburg in Sweden where the company was rebuilt from scratch as Aktiebogalet Original-Odhner. After a few years Russia produced their own Original-Odhner machines with the machinery they confiscated, though in 1928 the machines were rebranded as Felix machines.

Soon after the Original-Odhner company was set up in Sweden, Alexander Odhner died. The leadership of the company changed several times, and in 1923 even fell into the hands of the Scandinavian Bank, who owned it for a decade. Hans Herlitz, the previous director, managed to gather a consortium of people to buy it back from the bank in 1934. Despite all these tumultous changes, the company managed to develop and expand the range of calculator models. From 1931 they started producing adding-listing machines too.

Herlitz died in 1942, after which the company was taken over by Ă…tvidabergs Industrier who also owned Facit. When the Facit machines were restyled by Sigvard Bernadotte to have a more modern look, the same was done for the Odhner machines. By 1973 the market for mechanical calculators had collapsed, and the companies assets were bought by Electrolux.

Models

The Odhner pinwheel machines made in Russia came in three main types - A (13 digits), B (15 digits), and C (18 digits) and were called Odhner Arithmometers. They were gradually improved over the years, for example the crank was lengthened so that it was easy to turn even when the carriage was shifted to the right.

When production started in Sweden, it was first called the Arithmos, of which five types were produced. There was also the Lusid, a model that could be used for British currency (the consonants in the name Lusid mean L for the £, s for Shillings, and d was commonly used for pence). After that, each type was given an official model number, starting with 6. The table below lists these. The information was mostly gathered from Rechner Lexicon. The options column in the table uses the following letters:
   C = Carry mechanism in the counter
   I = Input display register
   B = Back transfer mechanism.

NameYearsCapacityOptionsNotes
Odhner Arithmos1919-19229×8×13 Types 1 to 5
Odhner 6 1922-192910×8×13 Quick clearing mechanism
Odhner 7 1923-194710×8×13
Odhner 8 1923-192810×8×13 CEarly +/- switch
Odhner 9a 1922-19275×5×9
Odhner 9b 1929-194710×8×13 C
Odhner 10 1924-195010×15×10 For British currency, like the previous Odhner Lusid
Odhner 11 1936-195110×11×20 C
Odhner 12 1925-193010×8×13 IQuick clearing mechanism
Odhner 13 1924-193510×11×20 C+/- switch
Odhner 14 1925-193010×8×13 I
Odhner 16 1925-193910×8×13 CI+/- switch
Odhner 18 1925-193010×10×19 I
Odhner 19 1922-193010×10×19
Odhner 20 1925-193010×11×20 CI+/- switch
Odhner 21 1936-195110×11×20
Odhner 22 1936-194710×8×13 I
Odhner 23 1936-194710×8×13 CIOne-handed clearing
Odhner 24 1940-194810×11×20 CB
Odhner 25 1938-195110×11×20 CIB
Odhner 27 1938-194710×8×13 B
Odhner 29 1938-194710×8×13 CB
Odhner 30 1930-194710×8×13 Quick clearing crank
Odhner 31 1931-193610×8×13 COne-handed clearing
Odhner 32 1932-193610×11×20 Quick clearing crank
Odhner 33 1933-193610×11×20 COne-handed clearing
Odhner 35 1939-19478×8×13+13IDouble registers, One-handed clearing
Odhner 37 1939-195010×8×13 IB
Odhner 39 1939-195010×8×13 CIB
The models that were still in production were restyled, and their model numbers increased by 100.
Odhner 107 1948-195410×8×13
Odhner 125 1952-195610×11×20 CIB
Odhner 127 1948-195410×8×13 B
Odhner 129 1949-195410×8×13 CB
Odhner 135 19??-19??8×8×13+13CDouble registers
Odhner 137 1951-19??10×8×13 IB
Odhner 139 1952-195410×8×13 CIB
A more thorough restyling was done by Sigvard Bernadotte, and again 100 was added to the model numbers.
Odhner 207 1955-196910×8×13
Odhner 227 1955-196910×8×13 B
Odhner 229 1955-196910×8×13 CBAlso available in Braille for the blind
Odhner 237 1955-196910×8×13 IB
Odhner 239 1955-196910×8×13 CIB
Odhner 1048 1969-197110×8×13 CBAlso available in Braille for the blind
Odhner 1049 1969-197110×8×13 CIB

The many adding-listing machine models are not listed here.


Manuals

Original-Odhner arbeitet für Sie!    (PDF, 3.42 MB or archive.org)
Anleitung für das Rechnen auf der neuen, formgestalteten Original-Odhner
AB Original-Odhner
1956
20 page booklet
127mm × 127mm

This small booklet is the German manual for the Original-Odhner 227. It has no copyright date but on the back it says it was printed in Göteborg in 1956.

Odhner 227 Manual
Odhner 227 Manual
Odhner 227 Manual
Odhner 227 Manual
Odhner 227 Manual


Odhner - Eine Addiermaschine die begeistert    (PDF, 1.93 MB or archive.org)
AB Original-Odhner
1959?
12 page booklet
127mm × 127mm

This small booklet is the German manual for the Odhner adding listing machines. It has no copyright date but the illustrations feature model X-11-C-8 or X-11-C-9, so it is from 1959 or later.

Odhner Adding Machine Manual
Odhner Adding Machine Manual
Odhner Adding Machine Manual
Odhner Adding Machine Manual
Odhner Adding Machine Manual



Articles and Advertisements

Here are various ads about Odhner machines.

1904-03-09 De nieuwe courant
1904-04-02 De standaard
1907-10-08 Het vaderland
1907-10-14 Het vaderland
1908-01-02 Het vaderland
1909-07-01 Nederlandsche staatscourant
1910-05-28 Leeuwarder courant
1910-10-15 De locomotief
1912-05-30 Algemeen Handelsblad
1927-02-14 De Maasbode
1953-06 Dun's Review
1955-03-04 US News and World Report
1957-04-16 Birmingham Daily Post (UK)
1960-03-08 Birmingham Daily Post (UK)
1965-08 The Office

Here is the extensive entry for the Odhner machines in Ernst Martin's 1925 book Die Rechenmaschinen.

1925 Ernst Martin p089
1925 Ernst Martin p090
1925 Ernst Martin p091
1925 Ernst Martin p092
1925 Ernst Martin p093
1925 Ernst Martin p094
1925 Ernst Martin p095

Here are various small articles about Odhner machines.

1878-12-07 Scientific American
1893-12-15 Engineering
1921 Orga-Handbuch
1936-10 Office Appliances
1949 Efficiency op kantoor - odhner


Patents

Here are some of the patents by Odhner relating to the pinwheel calculators.

PatentFiling datePublish dateNameDescription
DE 7,39319-11-187819-11-1878Königsberger & CoPinwheel Calculator
See also: US 209,416
CH 4,57821-11-189121-11-1891Willgodt Theophil OdhnerImproved calculator
See also: SE 3,264, US 514,725
DE 197,62614-04-190723-04-1908Valentin Jakob OdhnerQuick clearing lever
See also: FR 377,203, US 885,514
SE 47,868 C14-08-191713-10-1920Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerBack transfer mechanism
See also: AT 84,726 B, FI 8,194, FR 514,802
SE 48,897 C08-06-191806-04-1921Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerCounter disabling mechanism
See also: DE 344,917, GB 152,553,
SE 51,376 C24-10-191805-04-1922Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerCarriage shift buttons
See also: AT 85,407 B, CH 87,402, DK 27,090 C, FI 8,063, DE 342,373, FR 505,355, GB 134,217, US 1,385,350
GB 125,99925-04-191905-02-1920Valentin Jakob OdhnerImproved clearing mechanism
DE 339,42930-12-191925-07-1921Valentin Jakob OdhnerLock crank when clearing register
See also: GB 128,217, US 1,392,847
DE 333,18004-02-192018-02-1921Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerLock input during crank cycle
See also: CH 88,214, FR 509,579, FR 509,580, GB 138,095, GB 138,096
CH 88,21305-02-192001-02-1921Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerCrank cradle
See also: FR 509,581, GB 138,097
GB 162,51606-04-192005-05-1921Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerClearing mechanism
CH 89,07710-04-192002-05-1921Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerCarriage shift mechanism
See also: FR 513,963
FR 513,70414-04-192022-02-1921Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerImproved number wheel alignment
CH 88,21526-05-192016-02-1921Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerCounter direction switch
See also: FR 516,557, GB 161,848
FR 522,19708-07-192027-07-1921Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerCalculator improvements
DE 378,83719-08-192206-08-1923Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerMechanism for non-decimal display
See also: GB 196,271
DE 394,33411-08-192217-04-1924Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerRounding mechanism
DE 410,43720-08-192407-03-1925Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerInput display register
DE 414,40216-09-192202-06-1925Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerNon-decimal calculator
See also: GB 186,071, GB 211,420
DE 454,89813-03-192718-01-1928Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerCrank handle
DE 457,82419-06-192724-03-1928Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerResetting carry switches
DE 457,82713-08-192724-03-1928Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerMethod of attaching drum to axle
DE 465,65621-06-192721-09-1928Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerCarriage rail adjustment
DE 483,25010-10-192830-09-1929Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerAutomatic counter direction
DE 508,20305-11-192925-09-1930Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerManual counter direction
DE 886,66716-05-193917-08-1953Aktiebogalet Original-OdhnerSetting nines for complementary subtraction in double register machines

Links

Rechner Lexicon has a page about Odhner, which has links to many pages for specific models, including Arithmos, and the model 24.
Rechenmaschinen-Illustrated has pictures of many Odhner calculators, and a table of Odhner serial numbers.
Cris Vande Velde has a very early Odhner, a model 24, a page about the prototypes at the Smithsonian, and the Odhner LuSiD.
Rechnen Ohne Strom has a several Odhner models.
W.T.Odhner Memorial Site by Kevin Odhner.
John Wolff has page of various Odhner models, a technical description, and a complete rebuild of the Odhner Model 127.
Christofer Noering's Swedish Typewriter Page has various Odhner models, and a model family tree overview.
Thomas Kirchhof has a Odhner model 27, and a Odhner model 239.
Christian Hamann has a Odhner model 7, a Odhner model 27, and a Odhner model 239
Detlev Bölters has an Odhner Arithmometer type A, an Odhner Arithmos type 1, an Odhner model 29, and many others.


© Copyright 2021 Jaap Scherphuis, .