Jaap's Mechanical Calculators Page


Brunsviga Nova II Brunsviga 10 Brunsviga 11E Brunsviga 90 TA Minerva

Brunsviga and the Pinwheel calculator
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga 10
   History of the Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 90 TA
   Using the Brunsviga 90 TA
   History of the Brunsviga 90 TA
Promotional material

Brunsviga and the Pinwheel calculator

The pinwheel calculator as we know it was invented by Willgodt Theophil Odhner in around 1871. He was Swedish, but was working in Russia at the time for Ludvig Nobel, an oil magnate. Pinwheels had been used before in various forms, but never in large numbers because the precise engineering needed for manufacturing it is difficult. At almost the same time as Odhner in Russia, Frank Baldwin in the USA developed his own pinwheel calculator, but had difficulty selling it. Odhner made a few machines for Nobel, but it wasn't until 1890 that he had an improved design that was easier to make, and had set up a workshop in St. Petersburg to start producing them. The next year he also opened a production plant in Germany, but soon found it too difficult to oversee two such widely separated locations, and in 1892 the German plant was sold to Grimme, Natalis & Co, together with all its equipment, designs and patent licenses to manufacture the Odhner calculator for the German, Belgian and Swiss market.

The company Grimme, Natalis & Co was set up in November 1871 by Carl Grimme and Kaufmann A. Natalis. They were both sewing machine manufacturers who had decided to join forces. They also made other metal household apparatus, like ovens and heaters. In 1892 they began making pinwheel calculators in their plant in Braunschweig (Brunswick) using the brand name Brunsviga, which is the latin name for the town. Their first models, models A and B, were exact copies of the Odhner design, but with different numbers of digits. Soon their main engineer and co-director Franz Trinks devised several improvements (such as safety interlocks) and new designs. It took many years for the market for calculators to develop, but through extensive advertising using the slogan "Gehirn von Stahl" (Brains of Steel), demand grew. Eventually the demand for calculators even began to outgrow that of sewing machines.

While Brunsviga was the first Odhner clone, others would follow, especially after Odhner's patents expired. For example Triumph, Thales, Walther, Facit, Felix, Tiger, and many others. Willgodt Odhner died in 1905, and his sons took over the company. In the Russian revolution the Odhner company was confiscated, so the Odhner brothers returned to Sweden and started anew with the Original-Odhner company. In Russia the confiscated assets were used to produce the Felix brand of pinwheel calculators.

Meanwhile in Germany, Grimme Natalis & Co released a new series of models in 1925, the "Nova" series, which shared many interchangable parts for ease of production and repair. In 1927 the company incorporated the brand name into its company name, changing it to "Brunsviga-Maschinenwerke Grimme, Natalis & Co ", because by then it was producing calculators almost exclusively.

Competition between calculator companies was fierce, and in 1957 Brunsviga was bought by Olympia-Werke, a company that spun off from AEG and which made mostly typewriters. So from then on Brunsviga was once again merely a brand name. By 1963 the only mechanical calculator model they still produced was the Olympia-Brunsviga 13 RM, and in 1969 the last plant that still produced this machine, located in Spain, stopped too.

Brunsviga Nova II

The "Nova" series of models is the culmination of almost all of Franz Trink's developments. The Nova II was the most popular, and a little over 10,000 Nova II machines were produced from 1925 till 1934. The Nova I had fewer digits, and the Nova III had an extra revolution counter without a carry mechanism. Franz Trinks retired soon after this, and the Brunsviga pinwheel machines remained essentially unchanged until the 1950s. It has many clever features:

One of the few innovations not used in the Nova are longer stationary input pins. Some earlier models had input pins that did not rotate with the pinwheels when the crank was turned, which allowed them to be longer and more comfortable to use. This mechanism must have been considered too expensive or complicated to continue with.

My machine has serial number 6T 2O 864. Note that is the letter O. The first thousand had the numbers 6T 2N xxx, the next thousand 6T 2O xxx, then 6T 2P xxx, after which they switched to a fully numerical format of 103,000 onwards.

Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II

The paint on the top cover is crackled, and flaking off quite badly. Mechanically it is in reasonable condition. It mostly works fine, if a little stiffly, except that clearing the input sometimes leaves one of the digits set to 1. The back transfer also sometimes doesn't quite fully push the input pins to the correct position.

Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II
Brunsviga Nova II


Below is a video I made that demonstrates the Brunsviga Nova II.

Brunsviga 10

Unlike all other calculators that Brunsviga developed, the Brunsviga 10 has a stepped drum mechanism. It is relatively light and compact, and was apparently cheaper to manufacture. It has a smaller capacity, so it was clearly aimed at the low end of the market. It was made from 1932 until about 1952, with a break during the Second World War. The serial number on my machine is 160,469, which dates it to around 1938.

The case is painted black, like all Brunsviga's of the time. It has a stand that folds out and lifts up the rear of the machine, tilting it towards the user. The stand is released and locked in place by a small metal catch on either side near the bottom.

There is a crank on the right hand side, angled forwards towards the operator and slightly upwards to compensate for the tilt when the stand is used. The crank can be turned clockwise for addition, and anti-clockwise for subtraction.

The 10-digit register sits in a carriage that is in the middle of the machine. On the right there is a clearing handle. Shifting the carriage to the right is done simply by pulling it rightwards using the fixed knob on top. It is springloaded, and pressing the metal lever near the crank shifts the carriage leftwards by one digit. There is an identical left-shift lever on the left side of the machine as well. There is a stationary metal plate covering the left end of the carriage which keeps the mechanism enclosed even when the carriage is at its furthest point. When the register overflows or underflows, a bell is struck.

At the back is a 5-digit counter. It has the same kind of mechanism as the Nova series. On the left is a clearing handle. When it is clear, a green indicator is visible to the left of the counter. In this state the direction of the next turn of the crank determines whether the counter keeps track of additions or of subtractions. If the crank is turned anti-clockwise for subtraction, the windows of the counter shift to the left, revealing a set of red complementary digits, and the counter is adjusted to show the that one subtraction has been performed. Below the counter is an indicator showing the currently active digit corresponding to the location of the carriage.

At the front of the machine is the input register. It has 6 movable pins, each in a slot with the digits 0 to 9 next to them. There is a row of windows which display the current input number directly, making it easier to check it is correct. Unlike most pinwheel machines, the input pins remain stationary when the crank is turned. At the front right is a button which clears the input.

Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10

The Brunsviga 10 uses a stepped drum mechanism. Like the drums of the Monroe calculator they are split into two parts, but unlike the Monroe they are actually arranged on two axles. One axle contains drums that can move the number wheels anything from 0 to 4 steps, depending on how much they have been shifted. The other axle contains the carry mechanism and another set of drums that turn the number wheels either 0 or 5 steps. The two axles move in concert and the drums for each wheel are arranged so that they act one after the other.

The input pins are part of large input wheels, and these wheels have a cam profile on either side. These profiles push aside levers by an exact amount depending on the input setting, and those levers are connected through shafts to similar levers that push aside the stepped drums the correct amount.

Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10
Brunsviga 10

History of the Brunsviga 10

It was developed by Richard Haase who was working for Grimme Natalis, and patented by him in 1932. There have been some small changes in the design of the Brunsviga 10 during its production run. Until about 1935 they did not have the cover over the left part of the register, so the mechanism was exposed when the carriage was shifted. Almost 10,000 were made before the last years of the war interrupted production. When production restarted a few years after the war, they were slightly updated by being painted green instead of black, and they had no input clearing button, and no extra carriage shift lever on the left side.

The serial numbers used on the Brunsviga 10 were not a single consecutive set. The numbering was shared between all models, and in 1932 when this model started production they were at about 136,000, and in 1943 when production was paused they were at about 192,000. I presume number ranges of size 500 or 1000 were assigned to each model, with a new range assigned whenever the previous was used up. This means that the serial numbers give a good estimate of the total number of machines that Brunsviga produced, but they say little about any particular model. There may also be large gaps in the serial numbers which were used by other more popular models. When production restarted a few years after WW2 the serial numbers were about 230,000, and when it ended in 1952 the numbers were about 248,000.

In 1952 it was redesigned and this version was first named the B10 and then renamed the Nova 10. It had a more rounded green case, and internally the mechanism was changed to put all the stepped drums on a single axle. At the same time an electrically driven version was made which had one digit more capacity on all the registers, and it was called the model 11E. A few years later the model 11S was made too, which was a version of the electric model 11E with a full-sized keyboard.


Here is a video where I demonstrate the Brunsviga 10.

Here is a video showing the mechanism of the Brunsviga 10.

Brunsviga 11E

The Brunsviga 11E is a further development of the Brunsviga 10. It was made from about 1952 until at least 1959. The serial number on my machine is 11-16,672, which dates it to 1957.

The case is painted a metallic silvery gold and it has red keys. It has an 11-digit register to match its increased model number. The counter has 6 digits, and there are 7 digits of input set using a set of input pins. It is electrically driven, using the motor to perform the addition or subtraction, as well as to clear the register or counter. Shifting the carriage to the right is still manual however, though it moves left by a spring. There is a latch on the right hand side of the carriage that locks the carriage in place for transport.

The counter has the same mechanism as the Nova series for counting positive numbers in white, negative numbers in red, with the choice depending on the first operation after clearing the counter. There is a red underline marker under the current digit of the counter, where the current digit depends on the location of the carriage.

At the front-right of the machine is the input register. It has 7 movable pins, each in a slot with the digits 0 to 9 next to them. There is a row of windows which display the current input number directly, making it easier to check it is correct. Unlike most pinwheel machines, the input pins remain stationary when the crank is turned. At the front left are the various control buttons. The buttons marked I, II, and III will clear the input, counter, and register respectively. The left-arrow button shifts the carriage to the left, and the + and - buttons perform an addition or subtraction.

The selection switch next to the buttons has three options:

Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E

The Brunsviga 11E the same stepped drum mechanism as the Brunsviga 10, so see above for a more in depth description. It has a small electric motor at the back that is connected to the mechanism through a drive belt. There is no reversing gear, but for subtraction the polarity is switched so that the motor drives in reverse.

Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E
Brunsviga 11E


Here is a video where I demonstrate the Brunsviga 11E.

Brunsviga 90 TA

The Brunsviga 90 TA is full keyboard adding machine. The keyboard has 8 columns of keys, where each column has nine keys numbered from 1 to 9. Below the keyboard is an 8-digit input register which shows the number entered on the keys. Above the keyboard is a 9-digit results register. The register has a sliding window to allow negative numbers to be displayed through the use of complementary digits.
Attached to the right side of the machine is a large lever which is pushed down and released to perform any one of the three operations adding, subtracting or clearing the register. There are four control keys at the right of the keyboard. The usage of these keys is explained later.

It has serial number 22-05788. About 8000 of these machines were made and sold between 1956 and 1959. Towards the end they mostly produced a variant called the 90 T, which was identical except that it did not have the input register. Presumably this was to reduce costs. The Brunsviga ADSUM was another variant designed for British currency.

Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA

The mechanism uses toothed racks. Pushing the lever downwards lifts the register up away from a set of toothed racks, and these racks are pulled forward. They move until they hit a blockage determined by the input key settings. When the lever is released, the register descends onto the racks, and the racks are returned to their original position, turning the register's number wheels in the process. Switching between addition and subtraction is done by shifting the whole register sideways, which connects the number wheels to the racks without the use of an intermediate wheel, making them turn in the opposite direction.

Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA
Brunsviga 90 TA

Using the Brunsviga 90 TA

Entering a number: Enter the number on the keyboard, pressing one key in each column that has a non-zero digit. For example, to enter 104, press the 4 key in the rightmost column and the 1 key in the third column from the right. You can clear the entered number by pressing C.
Addition: Enter the number to add on the keyboard. Press down and release the lever.
Subtraction: Enter the number to subtract on the keyboard, and also press the minus button. Press down and release the lever.
Negative Results: If the register underflows because the result is a negative number, then shift the register's sliding window to the left. The register now displays the complementary digits with a green background. If the last digit is not a zero, then the displayed number is the correct negative result. If the last digit is zero, which is shown with a red dot in its centre, that zero should really be thought of as a ten. To get the actual negative number, that ten should be mentally carried over to the tens digit. For example, if the register displays in green the number 699 then it means -699, but if it displays a green number 690, then it really means the number -700.
Clear register: Press the * button, then press down and release the lever.
IMPORTANT NOTE: If the last operation was a subtraction, then the * button cannot be pressed down. If this happens, then push and release the lever (effectively adding a zero). You can then clear the register normally.
Repeated addition: Enter the number and press the R button. Repeatedly push the lever as many times as you want to add the number. Press the C key to clear the input.
Repeated subtraction is possible, but you have to press the minus and the R buttons simultaneously to get them to stay pushed in.

History of the Brunsviga 90 TA

This machine was not actually developed by Brunsviga but originally produced by Komet. The company Komet Rechenmaschinen GmbH was founded on June 1951 by Hugo Schumann in Frankfurt, and produced four calculator models. These machines were probably all manufactured in the machine workshop run by Siegfried Link in Griesheim, near Darmstadt. The first model in production was the Komet SK. It was a licensed copy of the Resulta BS7 (except that it had 8 digits) and was their cheapest and most successful model. Similarly, the Komet R8 was a copy of the Resulta AS7. The third model was the Komet TA 8/9, designed by Siegried Link. It came to market in 1953. The last model was the Komet DM 10, which was a large calculator with a full keyboard and a carriage, somewhat similar to a Monroe.

The Komet company went bankrupt in November 1955, less than four and a half years after it was founded. It is probable that the development and production of model DM 10 was too expensive and ambitious for this small young company. About 16,000 model SK were sold, about 1,000 of the model TA 8/9, but it is unclear if the model DM 10 even reached the market. Brunsviga bought all rights to the model TA 8/9, and all remaining stock was rebadged and sold as the Brunsviga Jedermann. They then continued production of the model, which was dubbed the Brunsviga 90 TA, and later also a variant without the input register display called the Brunsviga 90 T.

It is quite likely that Siegfried Link's company was responsible for manufacturing the Brunsviga 90 TA and 90 T, just like it was for the Komet TA 8/9. This lasted until about 1958, when production of this model ended. Note that Siegfried Link's company survived this setback, as it could fall back on making the Komet SK, now renamed the Link SK. They managed to diversify into making parts for other industries, for example for cars and bicycles.


Below is a video I made that demonstrates the Brunsviga 90 TA.


In 1957, Brunsviga was bought by Olympia-Werke, a company that spun off from AEG and which made mostly typewriters, but also some pinwheel calculators. In the 1960s, Olympia gradually stopped producing most mechanical calculator models, moving to electric and electronic ones. The mechanical model that continued the longest was the Olympia-Brunsviga 13 RM. It is a fairly standard pinwheel machine, with back transfer. They were mostly manufactured in Spain, and the ones sold in Spain itself used the brand name Minerva. Other than the name, the Minerva is identical to the Olympia-Brunsviga 13 RM.

It uses a standard pinwheel design, clearly from the Olympia stable rather than the Brunsviga. It has its 8-digit revolution counter in the carriage, to the left of the 13-digit results register. The add/subtract switch is shifted to a neutral position when the counter is cleared, and the direction of the next turn of the crank shifts it to the correct state. To do a back transfer, first clear the input, push down the back-transfer button which is located to the right of the register, and then clear the register.


This Minerva has serial number 30091, and is in reasonable condition. It works correctly, except that the back-transfer mechanism does not always quite push the input pins back to their correct places.

After removing the four rubber feet the bottom plate comes free. This gives access to the screws on the sides that keep the top part of the casing in place.


Promotional material

Calendar Coin

This is a coin or medal made of a light metal, possibly a zinc alloy. One side bears the image of a Brunsviga pinwheel calculator, with the text "Grimme Natalis & Co., Brunsviga, Braunschweig".
The other side has a perpetual calendar for the years 1908 to 1928. A thin plate covers most of this side of the coin except for two windows. When you rotate the coin so that the year in the top window lines up with the month on the front plate, the other window shows the correct days of the week for the calendar for that month and year.
It has some instructions in German: "Man setze gewuenschten Monat unter Jahr. Unterstrichene Jan & Feb dienen nur fuer Schaltjahre."


Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine von Pacal bis zur Nova-Brunsviga    (PDF, 26.3 MB or archive.org)
Dr. Ing. eh. Franz Trinks
40-page booklet
170mm × 230mm × 2mm

This German booklet gives a short history of the development of mechanical calculators, ending with a description of the full range of Brunsviga-Nova calculators that were available. It was written by Franz Trinks, who was the main engineer who designed the Nova series. A year after its publication in 1926 it was reproduced in the Grimme-Natalis company magazine, Braunschweiger GNC-Monatsschrift #14.

Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine
Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine
Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine
Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine
Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine
Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine
Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine

Différents Modèles Nova-Brunsviga
4-page leaflet
212mm × 281mm

This French leaflet has pictures of the models Nova I, Nova IVa, Nova 13, and Nova Duplex, and also briefly describes the Nova II and Nova IV.

Nova II-IV9
December 1929
Trifold leaflet
148mm × 210mm

This French leaflet shows and describes the models Nova II and Nova IVa. The models Nova III and Nova IV are briefly mentioned.

Nova 13-13Z
March 1930
Trifold leaflet
148mm × 210mm

This French leaflet shows and describes the models Nova 13, Nova 13Z, Nova 13ZG, and Nova 13ZK, where the latter two are on an additional page pasted in the middle. Also listed are the Nova II, Nova III, Nova IV, Nova IVa, and Dupla.

Tabelle der reziproken Werte von 1-1000 für BRUNSVIGA-Rechenmaschinen und BRUNSVIGA-Addiermaschinen
May 1956
Trifold leaflet
98mm × 210mm

This is a table of reciprocals from 1/1 to 1/1000. The front has pictures of the models 11 E, G 111 E, and 13 RK.

Tabelle der reziproken Werte von 1-1000
Tabelle der reziproken Werte von 1-1000
Tabelle der reziproken Werte von 1-1000
Tabelle der reziproken Werte von 1-1000
Tabelle der reziproken Werte von 1-1000


Here are a various advertisements relating to Grimme Natalis & Co, their Brunsviga calculators, and to Olympia.

1883-08-01 journal of domestic appliances
1885-10-01 journal of domestic appliances
1889-01-22 Export
1889-12-02 journal of domestic appliances
1893-12-11 Glasgow Herald (UK)
1894-01 Stahl und Eisen
1896-02-10 Het nieuws van de dag
1897-11-14 Algemeen Handelsblad
1901-02-16 scientific american
1903-10-20 Provinciale Noordbrabantsche en 's Hertogenbossche courant
1903-10-23 Provinciale Noordbrabantsche en 's Hertogenbossche courant
1904-04-16 Die Woche
1904-05-14 Die Woche
1905-09-24 The Washington Post (Washington DC)
1906-11-24 Journal fur die reine und angewandte Mathematik
1909-03-17 The Guardian (UK)
1909-03-24 The Guardian (UK)
1909-05-25 De Tijd
1909-09-06 De Telegraaf
1909-11-10 Algemeen Handelsblad
1910 The Fixing Of Rates and Fares
1911 Der Bautechniker
1911-02-21 The Guardian (UK)
1911-03-03 The Guardian (UK)
1911-03-07 The Guardian (UK)
1911-03-14 The Guardian (UK)
1911-03-17 The Guardian (UK)
1911-03-28 The Guardian (UK)
1911-03-31 The Guardian (UK)
1911-04-04 The Guardian (UK)
1911-04-07 The Guardian (UK)
1911-04-11 The Guardian (UK)
1911-04-18 The Guardian (UK)
1911-04-21 The Guardian (UK)
1911-04-25 The Guardian (UK)
1911-04-28 The Guardian (UK)
1911-05-02 The Guardian (UK)
1911-05-05 The Guardian (UK)
1911-05-12 The Guardian (UK)
1911-05-16 The Guardian (UK)
1911-05-19 The Guardian (UK)
1911-05-23 The Guardian (UK)
1911-05-26 The Guardian (UK)
1911-05-30 The Guardian (UK)
1911-06-09 The Guardian (UK)
1911-06-27 The Guardian (UK)
1911-07-05 The Times (London UK)
1911-07-30 The Guardian (UK)
1911-09-19 The Guardian (UK)
1911-09-21 Sheffield Daily Telegraph
1911-09-22 The Guardian (UK)
1911-09-26 The Guardian (UK)
1911-09-29 The Guardian (UK)
1911-10-03 The Guardian (UK)
1911-10-06 The Guardian (UK)
1911-10-11 The Guardian (UK)
1911-10-13 The Guardian (UK)
1911-10-19 Westminster Gazette
1911-10-20 The Guardian (UK)
1911-10-25 The Guardian (UK)
1911-10-27 The Guardian (UK)
1911-11-03 The Guardian (UK)
1911-11-07 The Guardian (UK)
1911-11-10 The Guardian (UK)
1911-11-14 The Guardian (UK)
1911-11-17 The Guardian (UK)
1911-11-24 The Guardian (UK)
1911-11-29 The Guardian (UK)
1911-12-01 The Guardian (UK)
1911-12-06 The Guardian (UK)
1911-12-08 The Guardian (UK)
1911-12-13 The Guardian (UK)
1911-12-19 The Guardian (UK)
1912-01-02 The Guardian (UK) 1
1912-01-02 The Guardian (UK) 2
1912-01-05 The Guardian (UK)
1912-01-09 The Guardian (UK)
1912-01-12 The Guardian (UK)
1912-01-16 The Guardian (UK)
1912-01-17 The Times (London UK)
1912-01-19 The Guardian (UK)
1912-01-23 The Guardian (UK)
1912-01-26 The Guardian (UK)
1912-01-30 The Guardian (UK)
1912-02-02 The Guardian (UK)
1912-02-06 The Guardian (UK)
1912-02-09 The Guardian (UK)
1912-02-13 The Guardian (UK)
1912-02-16 The Guardian (UK)
1912-02-20 The Guardian (UK)
1912-02-23 The Guardian (UK)
1912-02-27 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-01 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-05 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-08 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-12 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-15 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-19 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-22 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-26 The Guardian (UK)
1912-03-30 The Guardian (UK)
1912-04-02 The Guardian (UK)
1912-04-16 The Guardian (UK)
1912-04-17 The Guardian (UK)
1912-04-19 The Guardian (UK)
1912-04-23 The Guardian (UK)
1912-04-30 The Guardian (UK)
1912-05-07 The Guardian (UK)
1912-05-14 The Guardian (UK)
1912-05-21 The Guardian (UK)
1912-07-02 The Guardian (UK)
1912-07-04 The Guardian (UK)
1912-07-09 The Guardian (UK)
1912-07-11 The Guardian (UK)
1912-07-16 The Guardian (UK)
1912-07-18 The Guardian (UK)
1912-07-25 The Guardian (UK)
1912-07-30 The Guardian (UK)
1912-08-06 The Guardian (UK)
1912-09-13 The Guardian (UK)
1912-09-17 The Guardian (UK)
1912-09-20 The Guardian (UK)
1912-09-27 The Guardian (UK)
1912-10-11 The Guardian (UK)
1912-11-01 The Guardian (UK)
1912-11-04 The Guardian (UK)
1912-11-29 The Guardian (UK)
1912-12-03 The Guardian (UK)
1913-07-01 The Guardian (UK)
1913-07-04 The Guardian (UK)
1913-07-11 The Guardian (UK)
1913-07-15 The Guardian (UK)
1913-07-22 The Guardian (UK)
1914-04-08 Tammerfors Nyheter
1915-04 Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik
1916-07-05 Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant
1919-09-13 Svenska Tidningen
1921-03-17 De Preanger-bode
1921-04-01 De Maasbode
1921-06-03 Algemeen Handelsblad
1924-05-03 Chicago Tribune (Illinois)
1922-06-13 Algemeen Handelsblad
1922-10-05 Uusi Suomi
1926-06-12 Pilsner Tagblatt
1928-11-13 Suomen Sosialidemokraatti
1928-11-28 De Maasbode
1928-11-30 De Maasbode
1928-12-05 De Maasbode
1928-12-05 Helsingin Sanomat
1928-12-11 Algemeen Handelsblad
1928-12-12 De Maasbode
1928-12-18 Algemeen Handelsblad
1929-01-11 Suomen Sosialidemokraatti
1929-03-01 Helsingin Sanomat
1929-04-06 Maaseudun Tulevaisuus
1929-08-15 Helsingin Sanomat
1929-10-08 Helsingin Sanomat
1929-11-09 Keskisuomalainen
1930-01-28 De Telegraaf
1935-10-17 Algemeen Handelsblad
1952-02-02 De Preangerbode
1952-08-30 De vrije pers
1953-04-01 De locomotief
1953-07-14 De Preangerbode
1956-02-07 De Preangerbode
1958-08-30 Algemeen Handelsblad
1958-11-29 Algemeen Handelsblad
1959-10-10 De Volkskrant
1960-01-09 Algemeen Handelsblad
1961-01-21 Algemeen Handelsblad


Here are some articles related to Grimme, Natalis & Co., and Brunsviga calculators.

1893-11-30 Albany Weekly Herald (Oregon)
1893-12-02 The Sydney Morning Herald (Australia)
1894-08-30 The Royal Cornwall Gazette Falmouth Packet and General Advertiser (UK)
1899-11-20 The Pall Mall Gazette (UK)
1899-11-24 The Pall Mall Gazette (UK)
1899-12-02 The Pall Mall Gazette (UK)
1910-07-22 Portsmouth Daily Times (Ohio)
1911-01-11 The Times (London UK)
1873-08-30 Wiener Welt-Ausstellung
1873-09-06 Wiener Welt-Ausstellung
1885-04-01 journal of domestic appliances
1892-09-10 Schweizerische Bauzeitung
1892-10-02 journal of domestic appliances
1893-11-24 De Maasbode
1893-11-27 Het nieuws van de dag
1893-12-01 Leeuwarder Courant
1899-04-12 De Telegraaf
1899-04-21 Algemeen Handelsblad
1899-05-18 Het nieuws van den dag
1901-04-23 Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indie
1902-09  Zeitschrift fur Instrumentenkunde
1903-12-30 Report on the organization and working of railways in America
1905-08-04 The Railroad Gazette
1911-07 Royal Statistical Society Journal

Die Rechenmaschine Brunsviga
(1897-08-18, Prometheus)

1897-08-18  Prometheus 1
1897-08-18  Prometheus 2
1897-08-18  Prometheus 3
1897-08-18  Prometheus 4
1897-08-18  Prometheus 5

Modern Instruments and Methods of Calculation, a Handbook of the Napier Tricentenary Exhibition

1914 Modern Instruments Napier Tricentenary 1
1914 Modern Instruments Napier Tricentenary 2
1914 Modern Instruments Napier Tricentenary 3
1914 Modern Instruments Napier Tricentenary 4
1914 Modern Instruments Napier Tricentenary 5
1914 Modern Instruments Napier Tricentenary 6
1914 Modern Instruments Napier Tricentenary 7

The Calculating Machines
(1925, Ernst Martin)

1925 Ernst Calculating Machines 1
1925 Ernst Calculating Machines 2
1925 Ernst Calculating Machines 3
1925 Ernst Calculating Machines 4
1925 Ernst Calculating Machines 5

Moderne Buero-Maschinen

1931_Moderne_Buero-Maschinen Brunsviga

Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint
(1932, Felix Klein)

1932 Elementary Mathematics 1
1932 Elementary Mathematics 2
1932 Elementary Mathematics 3
1932 Elementary Mathematics 4
1932 Elementary Mathematics 5
1932 Elementary Mathematics 6


Here is a large selection of patents relating to Brunsviga's pinwheel machines leading up to the Nova series. Most are by Franz Trinks.

PatentFiling datePublished dateNameDescription
DE 124,57807-07-190021-10-1901Franz TrinksLock crank/input when clearing
See also AT 9,031 B, GB 1900/19,762
DE 126,74326-06-190008-01-1902Franz TrinksLock input when crank turns
See also AT 9,034 B, GB 1900/19,762
FR 344,54107-09-190407-11-1904Franz TrinksInput register
AT 30,756 B16-11-190525-11-1907Franz TrinksLock input when shifting carriage
AT 30,763 B16-11-190525-11-1907Franz TrinksOvershoot prevention
DE 185,00507-11-190516-05-1907Franz TrinksLock input through pin at crank handle
AT 32,602 B19-10-190610-04-1908Franz TrinksIndependent input pins
See also FR 6,833 E, GB 1906/23,659
FR 362,96921-04-190618-07-1906Franz TrinksCarry mechanism lever
US 843,50606-03-190605-02-1907Franz TrinksInput lever arrangement
DE 203,65926-10-190729-10-1908Franz TrinksCounter with complemetary digits
See also AT 39,207 B, CH 45,340, DK 12,416 C, FR 395,531, GB 1908/22,435, US 935,565
US 975,18013-06-190708-11-1910Franz TrinksFixed counter
AT 43,003 B29-03-190911-07-1910Grimme, Natalis & Co.Carriage shift by button press
See also CH 50,241, FR 409,262, US 967,821
AT 43,677 B29-03-190925-08-1910Franz TrinksBack transfer
DE 224,13125-07-190812-07-1910Grimme, Natalis & Co.Register locking mechanism
See also AT 47,275 B, CH 49,626, DK 13,282 C, US 953,622
DK 13,284 C10-07-190930-05-1910Grimme, Natalis & Co.Carriage shift mechanism
See also CH 49,628, FR13873E, FR 406,992, US 946,367
AT 59,385 B24-04-191226-05-1913Franz TrinksBlock input when clearing register
See also CH 59,698, FR 443,343, GB 1912/10,604, US 1,040,059
AT 61,307 B12-10-191225-09-1913Franz TrinksInput display register
See also CH 61,229, FR 449,723, GB 1912/24,275
AT 63,783 B02-01-191310-03-1914Franz TrinksRatcheted clearance mechanism
See also CH 62,620, FR 452,838
AT 66,728 B18-10-191325-09-1914Franz TrinksCarry mechanism
See also CH 66,344, FR 463,789, GB 1913/25,754
AT 66,729 B22-12-191325-09-1914Franz TrinksCarry mechanism
See also CH 67,131, FR 466,956, GB 1914/00,037, US 1,098,193, US 1,100,631
AT 68,733 B16-03-191425-05-1915Franz TrinksCarry mechanism improvement
See also CH 68,850, FR 470,156, GB 1914/07,963, US 1,134,780
AT 68,992 B27-03-191410-06-1915Franz TrinksOptionally copied input
See also CH 71,871, GB 1914/08,867, US 1,118,829
FR 467,39617-01-191410-06-1914Carl Rasmussen; Grimme, Natalis & Co.Carry mechanism
AT 72,870 B06-08-191527-12-1916Franz TrinksLock crank when pins not aligned
See also CH 71,476, FR 520,006, GB 147,114, US 1,220,029
CH 72,51529-11-191502-06-1916Grimme, Natalis & Co.Lock crank when pins not aligned
See also US 1,194,900
CH 72,99027-11-191501-08-1916Grimme, Natalis & Co.Pin alignment
CH 72,99127-11-191517-07-1916Franz TrinksLock crank when pins not aligned?
CH 91,91716-06-192001-12-1921Franz TrinksMechanism for shifting window on counter
DE 321,611 C23-04-191909-06-1920Franz TrinksCounter register with complementary digits and sliding window
See also SU 10,427
DE 325,901 C18-04-191909-01-1922Franz TrinksCounter register with complementary digits and sliding window
See also AT 86,598 B, CH 90,733, DE 325,902 C, DE 325,903 C, SU 10,427,US 1,445,461
AT 90,434 B10-12-192027-12-1922Franz TrinksFixed counter above input
See also CH 91,167, FR 528,855, GB 157,898
DE 354,897 C21-06-192120-06-1922Grimme, Natalis & Co.Mechanism for shifting window on counter
DE 359,634 C18-12-192125-09-1922Grimme, Natalis & Co.Input alignment mechanism
DE 377,424 C15-09-192218-06-1923Grimme, Natalis & Co.Lock for transport
DE 378,838 C01-11-192206-08-1923Grimme, Natalis & Co.?? shifting mechanism
DE 383,722 C31-10-192217-10-1923Grimme, Natalis & Co.?? Register clearing mechanism disengages clicking mechanism
DE 384,531 C22-08-192203-11-1923Grimme, Natalis & Co.Input clearing mechanism
DE 386,578 C21-11-192221-12-1923Grimme, Natalis & Co.Number wheel
DE 390,460 C29-03-192319-02-1924Franz TrinksWarning bell on counter with sliding window
See also AT 99,483 B, CH 108,102, DK 34,004 C, FR 577,413, GB 213,549
DE 393,955 C20-06-192311-04-1924Franz TrinksCarriage shifting mechanism
DE 396,316 C21-03-192202-07-1924Grimme, Natalis & Co.Input clearing disengages clicking mechanism
CH 107,41409-02-192416-10-1924Grimme, Natalis & Co.Pinwheel
See also DK 33,854 C, FR 577,245, GB 212,540
AT 99,766 B07-02-192425-04-1925Franz TrinksWarning bell on counter with sliding window
See also CH 108,220, DK 34,136 C, FR28776E, GB 212,561
AT 101,809 B20-09-192425-11-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Crank handle cradle lock
See also CH 110,312, DK 35,306 C, FR 586,482, GB 224,212
CH 110,31103-09-192401-06-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Carriage shift mechanism
See also DK 34,566 C, GB 223,895, SU 5,719
GB 212,54803-03-192422-01-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Shifting carriage rack
GB 223,89408-10-192411-06-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Number wheel
GB 224,21104-10-192412-03-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Single tooth drive
CH 113,19823-03-192502-01-1926Grimme, Natalis & Co.Clearing indicator
See also GB 233,672
DE 401,412 C02-03-192404-09-1924Grimme, Natalis & Co.decimal point indicators
DE 404,370 C17-04-192418-10-1924Grimme, Natalis & Co.carry mechanism
See also DE 412,945 C, FR 595,063, GB 232,577
DE 404,887 C14-05-192425-10-1924Grimme, Natalis & Co.Clearing mechanism
See also CH 112,987, DK 35,289 C, GB 234,061
DE 405,482 C17-04-192406-11-1924Grimme, Natalis & Co.carry mechanism
See also GB 232,567
DE 408,461 C11-04-192429-01-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Guard against crank reversal
DE 409,297 C22-06-192405-02-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Lock input
DE 411,403 C12-10-192420-03-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Decimal point indicator
DE 412,373 C02-10-192421-04-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Lock input
DE 415,284 C18-04-192412-02-1928Grimme, Natalis & Co.pins in two sections
DE 416,830 C24-12-192427-07-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Carry mechanism
DE 419,313 C20-12-192408-10-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Simplified number wheel construction
See also AT 102,415 B, CH 113,197, DK 35,372 C, GB 229,301
DE 426,140 C20-12-192409-03-1926Grimme, Natalis & Co.Improved pinwheel
See also AT 102,414 B, CH 112,632, DK 35,119 C, FR 596,069, GB 228,902
DE 414,135 C21-09-192317-02-1926Grimme, Natalis & Co.Calculation mechanism timing
See also CH 118,488, DK 35,686 C, SU 7,077
DE 416,040 C15-01-192507-07-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Carriage alignment during back transfer
See also GB 230,828
DE 416,828 C04-02-192527-07-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Turn direction indicator
DE 417,288 C05-02-192510-08-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Backtransfer interlock
See also CH 118,033, DK 36,935 C, FR 610,268
DE 417,396 C04-02-192514-08-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Backtransfer
See also CH 118,489, DK 36,934 C, FR 610,247, SU 7,076
DE 418,746 C27-02-192521-09-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Backtransfer interlock
See also CH 118,490, DK 36,936 C, FR 610,269, SU 8,380
DE 418,749 C20-02-192521-09-1925Grimme, Natalis & Co.Clearing mechanism for register
See also CH 117,597, DK 36,643 C
DE 437,284 C30-04-192618-11-1926Grimme, Natalis & Co.Crank cradle pincer
Here are the patents related to the Brunsviga 10 and its descendants.
PatentFiling datePublished dateNameDescription
DE 554,277 C07-03-193116-06-1932Grimme, Natalis & Co.Brunsviga 10
DE 565,704 C04-09-193124-11-1932Grimme, Natalis & Co.Input mechanism
DE 576,881 C02-10-193104-05-1933Grimme, Natalis & Co.Carry mechanism
DE 578,683 C04-09-193117-06-1933Grimme, Natalis & Co.Keyboard and back transfer
US 2,042,98608-06-193202-06-1936Richard Haase; Grimme, Natalis & Co.Brunsviga 10, single axle
US 2,545,55014-09-194920-03-1951Kurt Jordan; Brunsviga MaschinenwerkeImproved input clearing mechanism
US 2,648,49814-09-194911-04-1953Kurt Jordan; Brunsviga MaschinenwerkeImproved drum axle construction
Here are the few design patents related to the Brunsviga TA, by Siegfried link.
PatentFiling datePublished dateNameDescription
DE 1,709,046 U26-07-195527-09-1955Siegfried LinkGreen complement numbers
DE 1,709,047 U30-07-195527-09-1955Siegfried LinkInput register


Rechnerlexikon has pages for the models Nova II, 10, 90 T, 90 TA, and 13 RM. The page for Komet links to a good article about Komet.
Rechenmaschinen-Illustrated has one page with many Brunsviga pinwheel models, one with the Brunsviga 10 and later models, and one with Brunsviga adding machines such as the 90 T. It also has a page about Komet with a rare DM 10.
Rechnen Ohne Strom is an interesting site that has a page about Brunsviga/Olympia, and a page with toothed rack machines including the 90 TA.
John Wolff has a page about Brunsviga models including the 10.
The Odhner Calculator, Memorial site has information about the early pinwheel machines by Odhner.
Cris Vande Velde has many Brunsviga models including Brunsviga 10, and a section about a Brunsviga Exposition.
Arithmeum has information about the Brunsviga 10.
Vintage Calculators Web Museum has pictures of the Brunsviga 10 and its mechanism.

© Copyright 2019-2021 Jaap Scherphuis, .