Jaap's Mechanical Calculators Page

Hamann Manus

The Hamann Manus F



The Hamann Manus F
Video
History
Books and Manuals
Advertisements and Articles
Patents
Links

The Hamann Manus

The Hamann Manus looks like a pinwheel calculator, but it uses a different mechanism. At the front is a carriage containing a 13-digit main register on the right and an 8-digit counter on the left. In the main body are 9 input levers with an input register that displays the current lever settings. There is a large crank on the right, and a clockwise turn of that crank normally adds the input to the register, and increments the counter. There is a switch to the left of the input that changes the direction of the counter.

The main noticable difference from a normal pinwhweel machine is that the crank cannot be turned anti-clockwise. To subtract you must instead flick a switch located below the crank to set the machine in subtraction mode. This shifts the carriage a half step, thereby reconnecting the carriage register through a set of intermediate gears. A clockwise turn of the crank then subtracts the number because it turns the register digits in the opposite direction. There is a very small tab just below the counter direction switch with which the crank can be reversed. If for some reason the mechanism locks up and the crank cannot move forward, then you can push the tab to allow the crank to move backwards into its cradle so that the problem can be fixed more easily.

The carriage can be moved a step left or right using the arrow buttons next to the crank, or any amount using the knob on the front of the carriage. The clearing levers for the register and counter are both on the right of the carriage. The input can be cleared with a lever that lifts a bar that pushes the input pins up to zero. That bar can be made to lift every time the crank is turned so that the input is cleared automatically after each addition or subtraction. You can enable this with the small switch on the side of the bar, or disable it for multiplication or division.

Over the years that the Manus was in production, small improvements were made. These variations are unofficially denoted with the letters A to F. Mine is a type F with serial number 15421.

The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F


This machine has automatic division. Set up the numerator in the register (as many decimal places to the left as possible). Then shift the carriage as far to to the right, and push in the carriage knob. Set the input to the denominator, again at the left end. Set the counter direction switch to subtract, and clear the counter. Then simply repeatedly turn the crank. Whenever the register underflows, the carriage is moved a half-step to the left so that the next turn adds the denominator back. This then overflows the register and moves the carriage another half-step, ready to subtract from the next decimal position. This repeats until the carriage arrives at the far left location, where the register is disconnected and further turns of the crank have no effect.

The latched gear mechanism of the Manus is somewhat reminiscent of the Marchant XA. Instead of pinwheels in which the number of teeth vary, it uses gear wheels that can connect to or disconnect from the central axle. While the crank turns the axle around, the stationary setting lever acts like a cam, and the cam follower on the rotating axle then either locks or unlocks the gear. In effect the gear rotates by an amount that is proportional to the lever setting.

The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F
The Hamann Manus F



Video

Below is a video I made that demonstrates the Hamann Manus.




History

Christel Hamann (1870-1946) was a highly prolific and inventive designer of calculating machines. He founded his own company in 1896, at which his first machines were made. The full range of his lesser known early work is somewhat unclear. It is possible that he started with troncet adders and pinwheel machines, as his name has been linked to the Trick (troncet adder) and the Berolina (pinwheel machine) due to some of his patents. His first proper machine design was called the Gauss, and was a cylindrical machine with a single stepped drum at the centre and number wheels arranged around it. He patented this in 1902. This principle had been used by Philipp Matthäus Hahn in the 1770s to make a handful of machines, but the Gauss was simpler, and about a thousand were made. The culmination of the principle was the Curta calculator from 1946 by Curt Herzstark.

In 1905 he developed and patented an entirely new principle, proportional levers. Similar to stepped drum machines the input is done by sliders, one for each digit, and the slider shifts a gear along an axle so that it engages with the mechanism. In this case that is not a stepped drum for each digit, but a set of ten parallel toothed racks shared by all the input digits. These toothed racks are pivoted to an arm, and when one end of that arm swings out, the racks move different amounts, varying from 0 to 9 units. The register wheels move in one direction only, so when the racks have returned to their starting position the input has been added to the register. For subtraction the other end of the arm is moved so that complementary digits are added. Hamann called this machine the Euklid.

In 1907 Hamann's company was bought by Mercedes Bureaumaschinenwerke. They continued to make the Gauss for a few years, but it was mainly the Euklid machines that became successful and were developed further. Mercedes-Euklid variants, all based on the same principle, were produced until the 1960s.

In 1922 Hamann started working for Deutsche Telephonwerke GmbH, or DTW, which later became Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie AG, or DeTeWe. It seems that he essentially ran a daughter company Hamann Rechenmaschinen. There he developed the Hamann Manus, of which the model A was released in 1925. It seems that before then only Madas had made machines with automatic division, but they were much larger machines. This was the first compact calculator with automatic division. There followed models B to F, and finally R. See the description of my Manus F above for more details about the mechanism. Below is a table with information about these Hamann Manus models. Unless otherwise specified, later models in the table also have all the characteristics of the previous models.

ModelYearsSerial NumbersCharacteristics
A1925-1926 501- 1000Black colour; DTW logo; Wingnuts for clearing; Input clearing button at top-left; Carriage left-shift lever on the right, no right-shift lever; Overflow bell on outside.
B1926-1927 1001- 1500Carry mechanism in counter; Crank reverse tab
C1927-1937 1501- 8200Carriage right-shift lever on the left; Overflow bell internal
D1937-1944 8200-12000Both carriage shift buttons next to crank on right; Wingnuts replaced by clearing levers at each end of carriage.
E1948-195312001-15000No toothed rack visible in base; At some point changed to green colour, DeTeWe logo.
F1953-195515001-16000Green colour; DeTeWe logo; Both clearing levers on right of carriage; External input clearing bar
R1953-195940001-54000Back transfer mechanism

In his time at DeTeWe Christel Hamann also developed many other machines such as the Selecta, Delta, Elma, and various Automat models. He also experimented with relays used by telephone industry, and in 1931 patented one of the earliest electric calculators using that technology. Hamann died in 1946. In 1958 DeTeWe sold off Hamann Rechenmaschinen GmbH to Marchant. This occurred at the time that Marchant fused with Smith-Corona to become SCM, so Hamann Rechenmaschinen GmbH became a wholly owned daughter company of SCM.


Books and Manuals

Handhabung der Hamann Manus Rechenmaschine    (PDF, 10.7 MB)
Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.-G.
1937-1944
48 page stapled booklet
226mm × 156mm

This booklet is the manual for the Hamann Manus in the German language. It has no copyright year, but the pictures are of the model D so it was presumably printed between 1937 and 1944.

Hamann Manus Manual
Hamann Manus Manual
Hamann Manus Manual
Hamann Manus Manual


Articles and Advertisements

I have not found many articles and advertisements relating to the Hamann machines in online archives.

Here is the entry in Ernst Martin's 1925 book Die Rechenmaschinen:

1925 Ernst Martin 1
1925 Ernst Martin 2
1925 Ernst Martin 3


Here are a few other articles that mention Hamann.

1927-09-08 Linzer Tagespost
1931 Moderne Buero-Maschinen
1959-10-22 Aktiv


Lastly, here are some advertisements. The first one is for the Gauss, the last includes a Marchant Hamann.

1903-01-30 Der Bautechniker
1931-01-02 De Maasbode
1931-01-08 Arnhemsche courant
1940-05-18 Salzburger Volksblatt
1961-03-30 De Tijd De Maasbode



Patents

PatentFiling datePublished dateNameDescription
DE 88,22311-06-189510-09-1896Christel HamannPlanimeter
US 703,78502-07-190001-07-1902Christel HamannGauss predecessor
US 705,83828-03-190229-07-1902Christel HamannExtra register for pinwheel calculator
US 772,93513-10-190325-10-1904Christel HamannPinwheel calculator improvements
DE 179,24626-11-190430-11-1906Christel HamannSubtraction using complements on pinwheel calculator
DE 194,52723-03-190506-02-1908Christel HamannGauss calculator
See also: US 832,666
DE 209,81731-05-190613-05-1909Mercedes Bureau-Maschinen-Gesellschaft m.b.H.Euklid calculator
See also: US 1,011,617
DE 210,52430-10-190703-06-1909Mercedes Bureau-Maschinen-Gesellschaft m.b.H.10-key input
DE 210,66111-02-190807-06-1909Ch. Hamann, Math. Mech. Institut, G.m.b.H.Subtraction mode on Gauss calculator
DE 228,56304-06-190912-11-1910Ch. Hamann, Math. Mech. Institut, G.m.b.H.Calculator for products of more that two factors
DE 234,98415-09-191029-05-1911Ch. Hamann, Math. Mech. Institut, G.m.b.H.Calculation device for trigonometric functions
DE 242,66513-04-191116-01-1912Mercedes Bureau-Maschinen-Gesellschaft m.b.H.Trick, troncet with sliding cover for subtraction
DE 253,52524-06-191113-11-1912Ch. Hamann, Math. Mech. Institut, G.m.b.H.Printing mechanism
US 1,221,31820-04-191203-04-1917Ch. Hamann, Math. Mech. Institut, G.m.b.H.Calculator with fast multiplication
DE 268,72912-04-191327-12-1913Mercedes Bureau-Maschinen-Gesellschaft m.b.H.Trick, version for British currency
DE 278,68012-04-191302-10-1914Ch. Hamann, Math. Mech. Institut, G.m.b.H.Calculator with totaliser
DE 287,77017-02-191405-10-1915Ch. Hamann, Math. Mech. Institut, G.m.b.H.Euklid with automatic multiplication and division
See also: US 1,566,961
DE 367,72624-10-192025-01-1923Deutsche Telephonwerke G.m.b.H.Latched gear mechanism
US 1,528,01817-01-192103-03-1925Mercedes Bureau-Maschinen- und WaffenwerkeCombined typewriting and counting machine
US 1,566,96201-06-192322-12-1925Mercedes Bureau-Maschinen- und WaffenwerkeCalculator with fast multiplication
DE 418,44529-01-192511-09-1925Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Electric drive
See also: SE 64,082 C; US 1,912,133
DE 432,43519-12-192405-08-1926Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Automatic division
See also: SE 64,634 C; US 1,788,192
DE 443,47904-03-192629-04-1927Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Revolution counter
DE 468,27504-03-192609-11-1928Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Carry mechanism for revolution counter
DE 470,33924-10-192611-01-1929Deutsche Telephonwerke G.m.b.H.Shortcut multiplication
DE 502,27604-03-192612-07-1930Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Electric drive
DE 531,17814-07-192907-10-1931Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Automatic multiplication
See also: SE 76,452 C
US 1,968,20115-03-193031-07-1934Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Automat calculator
DE 615,33431-10-193303-07-1935Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Short-cut automatic multiplication
See also: US 2,170,406
DE 648,13712-11-193122-07-1937Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Selecta calculator
See also: GB 437,743; SE 82,799 C; US 2,081,008
DE 649,08316-02-193125-08-1937Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Casing
DE 691,20924-02-193720-05-1940Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Electrically driven carriage
DE 711,64122-04-193114-10-1941Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Electric calculator
DE 724,33027-08-193731-10-1942Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Electrically driven calculator
See also: SE 100,538 C
DE 728,51503-11-193328-11-1942Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Selecta calculator improvement
See also: GB 437,743; SE 82,799 C; US 2,081,008
DE 741,55921-03-193118-11-1943Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Electric calculator
DE 742,46407-09-193925-04-1944Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Calculator
DE 742,46605-11-194019-04-1944Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Revolution counter
See also: SE 106,919 C
DE 746,80411-03-193825-08-1944Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Keyboard Input
DE 748,50023-10-194003-11-1944Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Backtransfer
See also: SE 106,999 C
DE 756,99907-09-193921-06-1954Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Calculator
DE 759,32123-10-194022-02-1954Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Calculator
DE 819,59229-10-194905-11-1951Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Carry delay mechanism
DE 861,93502-07-194108-01-1953Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Backtransfer copy
DE 862,52431-08-194312-01-1953Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Multiple registers
DE 866,26821-01-193909-02-1953Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Automatic carriage movement for shortcuts
See also: SE 107,529 C
DE 866,56315-11-193912-03-1953Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Extra register (Selecta SP)
DE 867,01011-09-194212-02-1953Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Carry mechanism for extra register
DE 869,87605-03-193809-03-1953Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Transfer mechanism
DE 909,26012-10-194115-04-1954Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Transfer mechanism
DE 919,78729-10-194904-11-1954Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Backtransfer Manus R
DE 919,79028-08-193704-11-1954Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Quotient transfer mechanism
DE 924,71702-03-194107-03-1955Christel Hamann; Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie A.G.Printing mechanism
DE 1,799,980 U29-03-195812-11-1959Hamann Rechenmaschinen GmbHHamann Automatic 500

Links

Rechnerlexikon has a page for the Hamann Manus A-F, the Hamann Manus R, and has some material about Christel Hamann.
Rechenmaschinen-Illustrated has a page about Hamann calculators, and also an English translation of the Hamann Manus manual.
The history of Computing has a biography page for Christel Hamann
Tiny Henst's collection includes a Manus R
Cris Vandevelde has a Manus C
Christian Hamann has a Manus C, Manus D, Manus R
Wolf-G Blümich has a page about the Hamass Manus, as well as a detailed Table of Manus models.
Rechenwerkzeug.de has a page listing the Hamann DeTeWe machines.


© Copyright 2019 Jaap Scherphuis, .